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J Gen Virol. 2017 Nov 2. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000968. [Epub ahead of print]

Three novel, multiple recombinant types of species of human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D 73, 74 & 75) isolated from diarrhoeal faeces of immunocompromised patients.

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2​Deutsches Zentrum Infektionsforschung, Hannover und Braunschweig, Germany.
1​Institut für Virologie, Adenovirus Konsiliarlabor, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany.
3​Institut für Virologie, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.


Species D is the largest of the seven species of human mastadenoviruses (HAdV), but few of its multiple types are associated with asevere disease, e.g. epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Many other types are hardly ever associated with significant diseases in immunocompetent patients, but have been isolated from the diarrhoeal faeces of terminal AIDS patients suggesting their role as opportunistic pathogens. Three novel HAdV-D strains were isolated from the faeces of three immunocompromised adult patients (clinical diagnoses: lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome and AIDS CDC3B, respectively). These strains were not typeable by imputed serology of the hexon and fibre gene and therefore complete genomic sequences were generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). All three strains were multiple recombinants and fulfilled the criteria for designation as types 73, 74 and 75 with the penton/hexon/fibre genotype codes P67H45F27, P70H74F51 and P75H26F29, respectively. A novel genomic backbone and also a novel hexon neutralization epitope sequence were discovered in type 74, and a novel penton sequence in type 75. At the complete genome level, types 73, 74 and 75 were closely related neither to each other nor to type 70, which was previously isolated in the same region. However, these four HAdV-D types were closely related to each other in single genes and gene regions, e.g. penton, E1 and E4 due to recombination events in their phylogeny. In conclusion, regional co-circulation of opportunistic HAdV-D types facilitated co- and super-infections, which are essential for homologous recombination, and thus resulted in the evolution of novel genotypes by lateral gene transfer.


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