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J Food Sci. 2017 Nov;82(11):2759-2766. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13933. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

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Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology, Dongguk Univ.-Seoul, 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10326, Republic of Korea.
Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National Univ., 567 Baekjedaero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.


In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P < 0.05). In canned coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P < 0.05), suggesting that coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid.


Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions.


coffee; furan; handling conditions; reduction

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