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Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 23;71(1):8-13. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2017.233. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

International Comparison of Causative Bacteria and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Urinary Tract Infections between Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia.

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Division of Translational Research for Biologics, Department of Internal Related Medicine.
Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.
Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Science.
Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Kobe University Hospital.
Department of Urology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Airlangga University/Dr. Soetomo Hospital.
Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University/Dr. Soetomo Hospital.
Division of Advanced Medical Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Science, Technology and Innovation.


Variation by country in urinary tract infection (UTI)-causative bacteria is partly due to the differences in the use of antibiotics. We compared their frequencies and antibiotic susceptibilities in the treatment of patients with UTI from 2 cities, Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia. We retrospectively analyzed 1,804 urine samples collected from patients with UTI in 2014 (1,251 collected in 11 months at Kobe University Hospital in Kobe and 544 collected in 2 months at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya). Surabaya data were divided into adult and pediatric patients because a substantial number of specimens from pediatric-patients had been collected. The results indicated that Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (24.1% in Kobe and 39.3% in Surabaya) and was significantly resistant to ampicillin and substantially to first- and third-generation cephalosporins in Surabaya adults but not in Kobe adults (p < 0.01). Enterococcus faecalis was often isolated in Kobe (14.0%), but not in Surabaya (5.3%). Klebsiella spp. were isolated at a higher rate in Surabaya pediatric patients (20.3%) than in Surabaya adults (13.6%) and Kobe adults (6.6%). The antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates form Surabaya isolates tended to be lower than the ones from Kobe. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria were detected at a significantly higher rate in Surabaya than in Kobe (p < 0.001). These results showed that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of UTI-causative bacteria are highly variable among 2 countries, and the continuous surveillance of trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens is necessary for the future revision of antibiotic use.


antimicrobial resistance; extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL); international comparison; susceptibility; urinary tract infection (UTI)

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