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Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep;57(6):2001-2036. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1564-2. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

A systematic review of vitamin D status in southern European countries.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El Venizelou Avenue, Kallithea, 17671, Athens, Greece. manios@hua.gr.
2
Department of Rehabilitation, Nutrition and Sport, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, 3086, Melbourne, Australia.
3
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El Venizelou Avenue, Kallithea, 17671, Athens, Greece.
4
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
5
Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
6
The Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT), University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
7
Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Despite an acknowledged dearth of data on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations from Southern European countries, inter-country comparison is hampered by inconsistent data reporting. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic literature review of available data on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and estimate vitamin D status in Southern European and Eastern Mediterranean countries, both at a population level and within key population subgroups, stratified by age, sex, season and country.

METHODS:

A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify and retrieve scientific articles reporting data on serum 25(OH)D concentration and/or vitamin D status following standard procedures.

RESULTS:

Data were extracted from 107 studies, stratified by sex and age group, representing 630,093 individuals. More than one-third of the studies reported mean 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and ~ 10% reported mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 25 nmol/L. Overall, females, neonates/ infants and adolescents had the higher prevalence of poor vitamin D status. As expected, there was considerable variability between studies. Specifically, mean 25(OH)D ranged from 6.0 (in Italian centenarians) to 158 nmol/L (in elderly Turkish men); the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L ranged from 6.8 to 97.9% (in Italian neonates).

CONCLUSIONS:

Contrary to expectations, there was a high prevalence of low vitamin D status in the Southern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean regions, despite abundant sunshine. These data further emphasize the need for strategies, such as fortification of foods with vitamin D and/or vitamin D supplementation, which will be tailored to the needs of specific population groups with higher risk of insufficiency or deficiency, to efficiently tackle the pandemic of hypovitaminosis D in Europe.

KEYWORDS:

East Mediterranean; Prevalence; South Europe; Vitamin D

PMID:
29090332
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-017-1564-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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