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Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017 Oct 17;13:2607-2619. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S148617. eCollection 2017.

Thalamo-cortical network underlying deep brain stimulation of centromedian thalamic nuclei in intractable epilepsy: a multimodal imaging analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul.
3
Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan.
4
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM) can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS.

METHODS:

To explore core structures and their connections relevant to CM DBS, we applied electroencephalogram (EEG) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to 10 medically intractable patients - three generalized epilepsy (GE) and seven multifocal epilepsy (MFE) patients unsuitable for resective surgery. Spatiotemporal activation pattern was mapped from scalp EEG by delivering low-frequency stimuli (5 Hz). Structural connections between the CM and the cortical activation spots were assessed using DTI.

RESULTS:

We confirmed an average 72% seizure reduction after CM DBS and its clinical efficiency remained consistent during the observation period (mean 21 months). EEG data revealed sequential source propagation from the anterior cingulate, followed by the frontotemporal regions bilaterally. In addition, maximal activation was found in the left cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal cortex during the right and left CM stimulation, respectively. From DTI data, we confirmed concrete structural connections between CM and those maximal activation spots identified from EEG data.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that the anterior cingulate can be a core cortical structure for the bilateral propagation of CM stimulation. Our DTI findings also indicate that the propagation of CM stimulation may rely upon integrity of structural connections between CM and these key cortical regions. Structures and their connections found in this study may be relevant in the interpretation of the clinical outcomes of CM DBS.

KEYWORDS:

anterior cingulate; centromedian thalamic nucleus; cortical recruiting response; deep brain stimulation; intractable epilepsy; structural connectivity

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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