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Chem Cent J. 2017 Oct 13;11(1):101. doi: 10.1186/s13065-017-0329-6.

Steam distillation/drop-by-drop extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for fast determination of volatile components in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) extract.

Author information

1
Center for Chinese Medicine Therapy and Systems Biology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, Shanghai, China.
2
Key Laboratory in Flavor & Fragrance Basic Research, Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute, China National Tobacco Corporation, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.
3
Key Laboratory in Flavor & Fragrance Basic Research, Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute, China National Tobacco Corporation, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. xiejp@ztri.com.cn.
4
Center for Chinese Medicine Therapy and Systems Biology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, Shanghai, China. suyue@shutcm.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Jujube extract is commonly used as a food additive and flavoring. The unique jujube aroma and the mild sweet aroma of the extract are critical factors that determine product quality and affect consumer acceptability. The aroma changes with changes in the extraction condition, which is typically dependent on the characteristics of volatile oils in the extract. Despite their importance, the volatile oils of jujube extract have received less attention compared with the soluble components. So, an appropriate qualitative and quantitative method for determination of the volatile oils is vitally important for quality control of the product.

RESULTS:

A method coupling steam distillation/drop-by-drop extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (S3DE/GC-MS) was developed to determine the volatile components of jujube extract. Steam distillation was coupled with solvent extraction; the resulting condensate containing volatile components from jujube extract was drop-by-drop extracted using 2 mL of methyl tertiary butyl ether. The solvent served two purposes. First, the solvent extracted the volatile components from the condensate. Second, the volatile components were pre-concentrated by drop-by-drop accumulation in the solvent. As a result, the extraction, separation, and concentration of analytes in the sample were simultaneously completed in one step. The main parameters affecting the S3DE procedure, such as the water steam bubbling rate, extraction solvent volume, sample weight and S3DE time, were optimized. The standard addition approach was essential to obtain accurate measurements by minimizing matrix effects. Good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9887) and good repeatability (RSDs ≤ 10.35%, n = 5) for 16 analytes in spiked standard analyte samples were achieved.

CONCLUSIONS:

With the S3DE/GC-MS method, seventy-six volatile compounds from jujube extract were identified and the content of 16 compounds was measured. The results were similar to those from simultaneous distillation extraction. The developed method was simple, fast, effective, sensitive, and provided an overall profile of the volatile components in jujube extract. Thus, this method can be used to determine the volatile components of extracts. Graphical abstract The diagram of steam distillation/drop-by-drop extraction device.

KEYWORDS:

Drop-by-drop extraction; GC–MS; Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) extract; Steam distillation; Volatile components

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