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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:5828056. doi: 10.1155/2017/5828056. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Metallothionein in Brain Disorders.

Author information

1
Laboratorio de Neuropatología Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía MVS, Mexico City, Mexico.
2
Departamento de Neuroquímica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía MVS, Mexico City, Mexico.

Abstract

Metallothioneins are a family of proteins which are able to bind metals intracellularly, so their main function is to regulate the cellular metabolism of essential metals. There are 4 major isoforms of MTs (I-IV), three of which have been localized in the central nervous system. MT-I and MT-II have been localized in the spinal cord and brain, mainly in astrocytes, whereas MT-III has been found mainly in neurons. MT-I and MT-II have been considered polyvalent proteins whose main function is to maintain cellular homeostasis of essential metals such as zinc and copper, but other functions have also been considered: detoxification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, processes of inflammation, and protection against free radicals generated by oxidative stress. On the other hand, the MT-III has been related in events of pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. Likewise, the participation of MTs in other neurological disorders has also been reported. This review shows recent evidence about the role of MT in the central nervous system and its possible role in neurodegenerative diseases as well as in brain disorders.

PMID:
29085556
PMCID:
PMC5632493
DOI:
10.1155/2017/5828056
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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