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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 Jan;66(1):120-126. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15159. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Long Term Effect of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Cerebral Blood Flow.

Author information

1
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
2
Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
3
Brain and Metabolism Imaging in Chronic Disease Laboratory and Institute for Dementia Research and Prevention, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
4
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
5
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Miriam Hospital and Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
6
Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
7
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
8
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether long-term behavioral intervention targeting weight loss through increased physical activity and reduced caloric intake would alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

DESIGN:

Postrandomization assessment of CBF.

SETTING:

Action for Health in Diabetes multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial.

PARTICIPANTS:

Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were overweight or obese and aged 45 to 76 (N = 310).

INTERVENTIONS:

A multidomain intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) to induce weight loss and increase physical activity for 8 to 11 years or diabetes support and education (DSE), a control condition.

MEASUREMENTS:

Participants underwent cognitive assessment and standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0 Tesla) to assess CBF an average of 10.4 years after randomization.

RESULTS:

Weight changes from baseline to time of MRI averaged -6.2% for ILI and -2.8% for DSE (P < .001), and increases in self-reported moderate or intense physical activity averaged 444.3 kcal/wk for ILI and 114.8 kcal/wk for DSE (P = .03). Overall mean CBF was 6% greater for ILI than DSE (P = .04), with the largest mean differences between ILI and DSE in the limbic region (3.39 mL/100 g per minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07-6.70 mL/100 g per minute) and occipital lobes (3.52 mL/100 g per minute, 95% CI = 0.20-6.84 mL/100 g per minute). In ILI, greater CBF was associated with greater decreases in weight and greater increases in physical activity. The relationship between CBF and scores on a composite measure of cognitive function varied between intervention groups (P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-term weight loss intervention in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater CBF.

KEYWORDS:

cerebral blood flow; intensive lifestyle intervention; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus

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