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J Circ Biomark. 2017 Sep 28;6:1849454417733388. doi: 10.1177/1849454417733388. eCollection 2017 Jan-Dec.

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on circulating soluble-Klotho and IGF-I in young and elderly adults and in CAD patients.

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Exercise Physiology Department, University of Mary, Bismarck, ND, USA.
Life Sciences Department, Wingate College, Wingate, Israel.
Heart Institute Bnai-Zion Haifa Medical Center, Technion Institute, Haifa, Israel.


Different studies support the notion that chronic aerobic exercises training can influence the circulating levels of soluble-Klotho (s-Klotho) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). The effects of s-Klotho include improving the quality of life, alleviating the negative impact of age on the body's work capacity, and possibly increasing longevity. This review provides an overview of the latest findings in this field of research in humans. The different modes of dynamic exercise and their impact on circulating levels of s-Klotho and IGF-I in young adult athletes, untrained young adults, trained healthy older adults, untrained healthy older adults, and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients are reviewed and discussed. Together these findings suggest that long-lasting (chronic) aerobic exercise training is probably one of the antiaging factors that counteract the aging and CAD process by increasing the circulating s-Klotho and lowering the IGF-I levels. However, following anaerobic exercise training the opposite occurs. The exact metabolic and physiological pathways involved in the activity of these well-trained young and master sportsmen should be further studied and elucidated. The purpose of this review was to provide a clarification regarding the roles of s-Klotho and intensities and durations of different exercise on human health.


Aerobic exercise; aging; anaerobic exercise; coronary artery disease; elite athletes; epigenetic; master athletes

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Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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