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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 7;114(45):E9455-E9464. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1713805114. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Three-dimensional mesostructures as high-temperature growth templates, electronic cellular scaffolds, and self-propelled microrobots.

Yan Z1,2, Han M3,4,5, Shi Y6,7,8,9, Badea A10, Yang Y11, Kulkarni A3,4, Hanson E12, Kandel ME13, Wen X14, Zhang F6,7,8, Luo Y3,4, Lin Q3,4, Zhang H6,7,8, Guo X6,7,8, Huang Y3,4, Nan K15, Jia S14, Oraham AW10, Mevis MB10, Lim J3,4, Guo X3,4, Gao M3,4, Ryu W3,4, Yu KJ16, Nicolau BG10, Petronico A10, Rubakhin SS10, Lou J14, Ajayan PM14, Thornton K12, Popescu G13, Fang D17,18, Sweedler JV10, Braun PV3,4, Zhang H5, Nuzzo RG3,4,10, Huang Y11,19,20, Zhang Y21,7,8, Rogers JA22,20,23,24,25,26,27.

Author information

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
2
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
4
Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
5
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.
6
Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.
7
Center for Flexible Electronics Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.
8
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.
9
State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, People's Republic of China.
10
School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
11
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
12
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
13
Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
14
Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005.
15
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
16
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.
17
Institute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.
18
Beijing Key Laboratory of Lightweight Multi-Functional Composite Materials and Structures, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.
19
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
20
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
21
Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China; yihuizhang@tsinghua.edu.cn jrogers@northwestern.edu.
22
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208; yihuizhang@tsinghua.edu.cn jrogers@northwestern.edu.
23
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
24
Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
25
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
26
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
27
Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Simpson Querrey Institute for BioNanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.

Abstract

Recent work demonstrates that processes of stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates can guide the assembly of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials. Reported application examples include soft electronic components, tunable electromagnetic and optical devices, vibrational metrology platforms, and other unusual technologies, each enabled by uniquely engineered 3D architectures. A significant disadvantage of these systems is that the elastomeric substrates, while essential to the assembly process, can impose significant engineering constraints in terms of operating temperatures and levels of dimensional stability; they also prevent the realization of 3D structures in freestanding forms. Here, we introduce concepts in interfacial photopolymerization, nonlinear mechanics, and physical transfer that bypass these limitations. The results enable 3D mesostructures in fully or partially freestanding forms, with additional capabilities in integration onto nearly any class of substrate, from planar, hard inorganic materials to textured, soft biological tissues, all via mechanisms quantitatively described by theoretical modeling. Illustrations of these ideas include their use in 3D structures as frameworks for templated growth of organized lamellae from AgCl-KCl eutectics and of atomic layers of WSe2 from vapor-phase precursors, as open-architecture electronic scaffolds for formation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neural networks, and as catalyst supports for propulsive systems in 3D microswimmers with geometrically controlled dynamics. Taken together, these methodologies establish a set of enabling options in 3D micro/nanomanufacturing that lie outside of the scope of existing alternatives.

KEYWORDS:

electronic cellular scaffolds; eutectics; three-dimensional microstructures; three-dimensional printing; two-dimensional materials

PMID:
29078394
PMCID:
PMC5692593
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1713805114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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