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Chemosphere. 2018 Jan;191:651-663. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.097. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Status of indoor air pollution (IAP) through particulate matter (PM) emissions and associated health concerns in South Asia.

Author information

1
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
2
Department of Meteorology, COMSATS University, Islamabad Campuses, Pakistan; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
3
Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
4
Department of Meteorology, COMSATS University, Islamabad Campuses, Pakistan.
5
Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk.
6
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China. Electronic address: peids@cigit.ac.cn.

Abstract

Exposure to particulate emissions poses a variety of public health concerns worldwide, specifically in developing countries. This review summarized the documented studies on indoor particulate matter (PM) emissions and their major health concerns in South Asia. Reviewed literature illustrated the alarming levels of indoor air pollution (IAP) in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, while Sri Lanka and Bhutan are confronted with relatively lower levels, albeit not safe. To our knowledge, data on this issue are absent from Afghanistan and Maldives. We found that the reported levels of PM10 and PM2.5 in Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India were 2-65, 3-30, 4-22, 2-28 and 1-139, 2-180, 3-77, 1-40 fold higher than WHO standards for indoor PM10 (50 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (25 μg/m3), respectively. Regarding IAP-mediated health concerns, mortality rates and incidences of respiratory and non-respiratory diseases were increasing with alarming rates, specifically in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The major cause might be the reliance of approximately 80% population on conventional biomass burning in the region. Current review also highlighted the prospects of IAP reduction strategies, which in future can help to improve the status of indoor air quality and public health in South Asia.

KEYWORDS:

Biomass burning; Hazard function; Health impacts; Indoor air quality; Particulate matter

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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