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Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D113-D120. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx988.

HEDD: Human Enhancer Disease Database.

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Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.


Enhancers, as specialized genomic cis-regulatory elements, activate transcription of their target genes and play an important role in pathogenesis of many human complex diseases. Despite recent systematic identification of them in the human genome, currently there is an urgent need for comprehensive annotation databases of human enhancers with a focus on their disease connections. In response, we built the Human Enhancer Disease Database (HEDD) to facilitate studies of enhancers and their potential roles in human complex diseases. HEDD currently provides comprehensive genomic information for ∼2.8 million human enhancers identified by ENCODE, FANTOM5 and RoadMap with disease association scores based on enhancer-gene and gene-disease connections. It also provides Web-based analytical tools to visualize enhancer networks and score enhancers given a set of selected genes in a specific gene network. HEDD is freely accessible at

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