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Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 9;46(1):e5. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx977.

panX: pan-genome analysis and exploration.

Author information

1
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
2
Mathematisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.
3
Biozentrum and SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Abstract

Horizontal transfer, gene loss, and duplication result in dynamic bacterial genomes shaped by a complex mixture of different modes of evolution. Closely related strains can differ in the presence or absence of many genes, and the total number of distinct genes found in a set of related isolates-the pan-genome-is often many times larger than the genome of individual isolates. We have developed a pipeline that efficiently identifies orthologous gene clusters in the pan-genome. This pipeline is coupled to a powerful yet easy-to-use web-based visualization for interactive exploration of the pan-genome. The visualization consists of connected components that allow rapid filtering and searching of genes and inspection of their evolutionary history. For each gene cluster, panX displays an alignment, a phylogenetic tree, maps mutations within that cluster to the branches of the tree and infers gain and loss of genes on the core-genome phylogeny. PanX is available at pangenome.de. Custom pan-genomes can be visualized either using a web server or by serving panX locally as a browser-based application.

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