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Foods. 2017 Oct 27;6(11). pii: E93. doi: 10.3390/foods6110093.

Glycomacropeptide Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Cell Barrier Dysfunction and Adhesion of Entero-Hemorrhagic and Entero-Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Vitro.

Author information

1
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61C996 Co. Cork, Ireland. shanefeeney1518@gmail.com.
2
Advanced Glycoscience Research Cluster, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland Galway, H91TK33 Galway, Ireland. shanefeeney1518@gmail.com.
3
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61C996 Co. Cork, Ireland. josephthomas.ryan@gmail.com.
4
Advanced Glycoscience Research Cluster, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland Galway, H91TK33 Galway, Ireland. michelle.kilcoyne@nuigalway.ie.
5
Advanced Glycoscience Research Cluster, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland Galway, H91TK33 Galway, Ireland. lokesh.joshi@nuigalway.ie.
6
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61C996 Co. Cork, Ireland. rita.hickey@teagasc.ie.

Abstract

In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein. In this study, we investigated the ability of GMP to inhibit the adhesion of a variety of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains to HT-29 and Caco-2 intestinal cell lines, given the importance of E. coli in causing bacterial gastroenteritis. GMP significantly reduced pathogen adhesion, albeit with a high degree of species specificity toward enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains O125:H32 and O111:H2 and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain 12900 O157:H7. The anti-adhesive effect resulted from the interaction of GMP with the E. coli cells and was also dependent on GMP concentration. Pre-incubation of intestinal Caco-2 cells with GMP reduced pathogen translocation as represented by a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thus, GMP is an effective in-vitro inhibitor of adhesion and epithelial injury caused by E. coli and may have potential as a biofunctional ingredient in foods to improve gastrointestinal health.

KEYWORDS:

Escherichia coli; adherence; enterohemorrhagic; enteropathogenic; glycomacropeptide; milk

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