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J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2017 Jul-Sep;29(3):468-471.

Causes Of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding On Colonoscopy.

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Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Department of Gastroenterology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan.



Bleeding from anus is usually referred as rectal bleeding but actually rectal bleeding is defined as bleeding from lower colon or rectum, which means bleeding from a place distal to ligament of Treitz. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of different causes of rectal bleeding in patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad.


One hundred and seventy-five patients with evidence of rectal bleed, without gender discrimination were selected by non-probability convenient sampling from the out-patient department and general medical wards. Patients with suspected upper GI source of bleeding; acute infectious bloody diarrhoea and any coagulopathy were excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to fibre optic colonoscopy after preparation of the gut and findings were recorded. Where necessary, biopsy samples were also taken. Diagnosis was based on colonoscopic findings.


A total of 175 patients (92 males and 83 females) with mean age 35.81±9.18 years were part of the study. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 150 (85.7%) patients. The commonest diagnosis was haemorrhoids, which was found in 39 (22.3%) patients. It was followed by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 30 (17.1%) patients, solitary rectal ulcer in 13 (7.4%) patients and polyps in 25 (14.3%) patients. Other less frequent findings were non-specific inflammation and fungating growths in rectum.


Haemorrhoids was the leading cause of bleeding per rectum in this study, followed by evidence of IBD while infrequent findings of polyps and diverticuli indicate that these are uncommon in this region.


Colonoscopy; Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage; Haemorrhoids

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