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Front Neuroendocrinol. 2018 Jul;50:118-122. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Sex differences in the pituitary TGFβ1 system: The role of TGFβ1 in prolactinoma development.

Author information

1
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina; Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States. Electronic address: vrecouvreux@sbpdiscovery.org.
2
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: erika.faraoni@gmail.com.
3
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: marucc7@gmail.com.
4
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: lauratner@gmail.com.
5
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: alejandra.abeledo@gmail.com.
6
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: srulli@ibyme.conicet.gov.ar.
7
Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: gdiaz@ibyme.conicet.gov.ar.

Abstract

Prolactinomas are the most frequent functioning pituitary adenomas, and sex differences in tumor size, behavior and incidence have been described. These differences have been associated with earlier diagnosis in woman, as well as with serum estradiol levels. Experimental models of prolactinomas in rodents also show a higher incidence in females, and recent findings suggest that gender differences in the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) system might be involved in the sex-specific development of prolactinomas in these models. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature supporting the important role of TGFβ1 as a local modulator of pituitary lactotroph function and to provide recent evidence for TGFβ1 involvement in the sex differences found in prolactinoma development in animal models.

KEYWORDS:

Dopamine; Estradiol; Prolactinoma; Sex differences; TGFβ1

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