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Sleep Health. 2015 Dec;1(4):233-243. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: final report.

Author information

1
Division of Public Mental Health and Population Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
2
National Sleep Foundation, Arlington, VA, USA. Electronic address: kwhiton@sleepfoundation.org.
3
Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Pitt Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA, Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System; David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
5
Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
6
Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood IL, USA.
7
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
8
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.
9
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
10
Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
11
Clinical Sleep Research, Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
12
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
13
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.
14
Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center, Division of Public Mental Health and Population Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
15
Departments of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
16
Department of Biology, Gannon University, Erie, PA, USA.
17
American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL, USA.
18
Inpatient Geriatrics, Robley Rex VAMC, Department of Internal Medicine and Family & Geriatric Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
19
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
20
Division of Sleep Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To make scientifically sound and practical recommendations for daily sleep duration across the life span.

METHODS:

The National Sleep Foundation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel (Panel) with broad representation from leading stakeholder organizations. The Panel evaluated the latest scientific evidence and participated in a formal consensus and voting process. Then, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to formulate sleep duration recommendations.

RESULTS:

The Panel made sleep duration recommendations for 9 age groups. Sleep duration ranges, expressed as hours of sleep per day, were designated as recommended, may be appropriate, or not recommended. Recommended sleep durations are as follows: 14-17 hours for newborns, 12-15 hours for infants, 11-14 hours for toddlers, 10-13 hours for preschoolers, 9-11 hours for school-aged children, and 8-10 hours for teenagers. Seven to 9 hours is recommended for young adults and adults, and 7-8 hours of sleep is recommended for older adults. The self-designated basis for duration selection and critical discussions are also provided.

CONCLUSIONS:

Consensus for sleep duration recommendations was reached for specific age groupings. Consensus using a multidisciplinary expert Panel lends robust credibility to the results. Finally, limitations and caveats of these recommendations are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Life span sleep; National Sleep Foundation; RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method; Sleep adequacy; Sleep by age; Sleep duration; Sleep need; Sleep sufficiency; Sleep time recommendations

PMID:
29073398
DOI:
10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004

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