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J Appl Toxicol. 2018 Mar;38(3):418-431. doi: 10.1002/jat.3551. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Mechanisms of toxicity associated with six tyrosine kinase inhibitors in human hepatocyte cell lines.

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Swiss Centre of Applied Human Toxicology, Switzerland.


Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. They are usually well tolerated, but can cause adverse reactions including liver injury. Currently, mechanisms of hepatotoxicity associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors are only partially clarified. We therefore aimed at investigating the toxicity of regorafenib, sorafenib, ponatinib, crizotinib, dasatinib and pazopanib on HepG2 and partially on HepaRG cells. Regorafenib and sorafenib strongly inhibited oxidative metabolism (measured by the Seahorse-XF24 analyzer) and glycolysis, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptosis and/or necrosis of HepG2 cells at concentrations similar to steady-state plasma concentrations in humans. In HepaRG cells, pretreatment with rifampicin decreased membrane toxicity (measured as adenylate kinase release) and dissipation of adenosine triphosphate stores, indicating that toxicity was associated mainly with the parent drugs. Ponatinib strongly impaired oxidative metabolism but only weakly glycolysis, and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells at concentrations higher than steady-state plasma concentrations in humans. Crizotinib and dasatinib did not significantly affect mitochondrial functions and inhibited glycolysis only weakly, but induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Pazopanib was associated with a weak increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation and inhibition of glycolysis without being cytotoxic. In conclusion, regorafenib and sorafenib are strong mitochondrial toxicants and inhibitors of glycolysis at clinically relevant concentrations. Ponatinib affects mitochondria and glycolysis at higher concentrations than reached in plasma (but possibly in liver), whereas crizotinib, dasatinib and pazopanib showed no relevant toxicity. Mitochondrial toxicity and inhibition of glycolysis most likely explain hepatotoxicity associated with regorafenib, sorafenib and possibly pazopanib, but not for the other compounds investigated.


Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; apoptosis; glycolysis; hepatocellular toxicity; mitochondrial toxicity; reactive oxygen species


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