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Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017 Aug;20:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.04.001. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Caffeine intake and abstract reasoning among 1374 unselected men and women from general population. Role of the -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Unit of Vascular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani No. 2, 35128 Padua, Italy. Electronic address: edoardo.casiglia@unipd.it.
2
Department of Medicine, Lab of Epidemiology, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani No. 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.
3
School of Medicine, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani No. 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.
4
Clinical Biochemistry Section, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Piazzale Scuro No. 10, Verona, Italy.
5
Department of Medicine, Hospital of Rovigo, Viale Tre Martiri No. 140, 45100 Rovigo, Italy.
6
Department of Medicine, Unit of Clinical Nutrition, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani No. 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.
7
Department of Medicine, Unit of Vascular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani No. 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The possible effect of caffeine as an enhancer of cognitive performance, particularly that on abstract reasoning, has never been studied in an epidemiological setting, especially in relation to -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene, largely controlling caffeine metabolism. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether in general population free chronic caffeine intake modifies abstract reasoning, and if this effect is influenced by the above mentioned genotype, by age, schooling, ethanol intake and smoking habits.

METHODS:

We studied 1374 unselected men and women aged 51 ± 15 years (range 18-89) from a general population. Daily caffeine intake deriving from coffee, tea, chocolate or cola was calculated from an anamnestic questionnaire and from a 7-day dietary diary. Abstract reasoning was measured in the frame of a neuropsychological assessment as the ability to find a concept linking two words indicating objects or actions and explaining how they were connected.

RESULTS:

In age-schooling-adjusted linear regression, the higher the caffeine intake, the better the abstraction score. Abstract reasoning depended on caffeine in the -163C>A CC homozygous only (so-called slow metabolizers), where it was higher in the 3rd tertile of caffeine intake. Age and ethanol reduced while smoking and schooling enhanced this association. The interaction term between caffeine and the -163C>A polymorphism was accepted in linear regressions. Caffeine consumption resulted innocuous for the A-carriers (so-called fast metabolizers).

CONCLUSIONS:

In general population, a positive association between caffeine intake and abstract reasoning exists in the CC homozygous of the -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene.

KEYWORDS:

Abstract reasoning; CYP1A2; Caffeine; Epidemiology; Genetics

PMID:
29072170
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.04.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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