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Diabetologia. 2017 Dec;60(12):2319-2328. doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4463-4. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Improving the clinical value and utility of CGM systems: issues and recommendations : A joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Technology Working Group.

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Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.
Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
International Diabetes Center at Park Nicollet, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, ZIBMT, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Kinexum, Harpers Ferry, WV, USA.
Science & Co, Dusseldorf, Germany.


The first systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) became available over 15 years ago. Many then believed CGM would revolutionise the use of intensive insulin therapy in diabetes; however, progress towards that vision has been gradual. Although increasing, the proportion of individuals using CGM rather than conventional systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose on a daily basis is still low in most parts of the world. Barriers to uptake include cost, measurement reliability (particularly with earlier-generation systems), human factors issues, lack of a standardised format for displaying results and uncertainty on how best to use CGM data to make therapeutic decisions. This scientific statement makes recommendations for systemic improvements in clinical use and regulatory (pre- and postmarketing) handling of CGM devices. The aim is to improve safety and efficacy in order to support the advancement of the technology in achieving its potential to improve quality of life and health outcomes for more people with diabetes.


Adverse events; Ambulatory glucose profile; CGM; Glucose; Insulin; Interstitial; Position statement; Safety; Technology; Therapy; Time in range

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