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Nutrients. 2017 Oct 23;9(10). pii: E1156. doi: 10.3390/nu9101156.

Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events.

Author information

1
School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences, Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK. amy.llewellyn@menzies.edu.au.
2
Menzies School of Health Research, John Mathews Building (Building 58), Royal Darwin Hospital Campus, PO Box 41096, Casuarina NT0811, Australia. amy.llewellyn@menzies.edu.au.
3
School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences, Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK. andrew.foey@plymouth.ac.uk.

Abstract

There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology.

KEYWORDS:

cytokines; dendritic cells; epithelial cells; immunomodulation; inflammation; innate; macrophages; neutrophils; probiotics; signaling

PMID:
29065562
PMCID:
PMC5691772
DOI:
10.3390/nu9101156
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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