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Climacteric. 2017 Dec;20(6):583-591. doi: 10.1080/13697137.2017.1386649. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Metabolic syndrome in menopause and associated factors: a meta-analysis.

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a State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University/Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing , China.
b Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Beijing , China.



Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Menopause is associated with an increased risk for MetS. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to better understand the relationship between MetS and menopause.


MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for all the associated articles on (1) MetS components in postmenopausal women vs. premenopausal women, (2) comparison of MetS incidence between surgical menopause and natural menopause, (3) the effect of hormone therapy (HT) with 17β-estradiol (E2) compared to conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on MetS components among postmenopausal women. A meta-analysis was applied by Review Manager 5.3 software.


All comparable indicators were significantly unfavorably changed in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women except for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Women who underwent surgical menopause suffered a 1.51-fold higher risk for MetS compared to those with natural menopause. HT with E2 provided more benefits for levels of triglyceride and diastolic blood, while CEE showed a better effect on both high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.


Menopause nearly adversely affects all components of MetS, and surgical menopause may lead to a higher incidence of MetS compared to natural menopause. HT with various preparations may have different effects on MetS components. These results may clarify the management of menopause-related MetS in clinical practice.


Menopause; hormone therapy; metabolic syndrome; surgical menopause

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