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Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2017 Oct 1;6(10):344-355. doi: 10.1089/wound.2017.0734.

Toll-Like Receptor Function in Acute Wounds.

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1
Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Abstract

Significance: Inflammation is an integral part of immune response and supports optimal wound healing in adults. Inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and mast cells produce important cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. These immune cells interact with keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (ECs), as well as the extracellular matrix within a complicated network that promotes and regulates wound healing. Aberrant and persistent inflammation may result in delayed wound healing, scar formation, or chronic wounds. Targeting the molecules involved in the inflammatory response may have great potential therapeutic value. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns from microbes or danger-associated molecular patterns from damaged cells. The discovery of TLRs sheds new light on the mechanism by which the inflammatory or innate immune response is initiated in wound healing. Convincing evidence now shows that multiple types of cells, including infiltrating or resident inflammatory cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and ECs, express specific types of TLRs. Experimental reduction of certain TLRs or treatment of wounds with TLR ligands has been shown to affect wound healing. A better understanding of the involvement of TLRs in the innate immune response during skin wound healing may suggest novel strategies to improve the quality of tissue repair. Future Directions: Despite the indisputable role of TLRs in regulating the immune response in acute wound healing, the functions of TLRs that are relevant to human wound healing and chronic wounds are poorly understood.

KEYWORDS:

inflammation; innate immunity; skin; toll-like receptor; wound

Conflict of interest statement

No competing financial interests exist. The content of this article was written by the authors listed. No ghostwriters were used to write this article.

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