Send to

Choose Destination
J Tehran Heart Cent. 2017 Jul;12(3):138-141.

Perventricular Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Closure under Epicardial Echocardiography Guidance: A Case Report.

Author information

Madani Heart Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are among the most common congenital cardiac lesions. Large defects at apicomuscular regions, especially in young patients, are far from accessible to surgeons for conventional surgery. Moreover, the transcatheter closure of VSDs in these patients is difficult and carries a high risk of complications because of the large sheath size relative to the patient's size. The periventricular approach simplifies VSD closure and, thus, eliminates the potential complications of cardiac catheterization and fluoroscopy as it is performed under echocardiographic guidance. A 3-year-old girl with a body weight of 11 kg (failure to thrive) was referred to us. She had multiple adjacent apicomuscular VSDs, the largest one being about 19 mm in diameter, and subsystemic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). The patient underwent periventricular apicomuscular VSD closure with a Lifetech muscular VSD occluder (size 22 mm) under epicardial echocardiography guidance without cardiopulmonary bypass. Post procedure, the PAP was decreased to mild level. The residual shunt was mild across the adjacent small defects. She was discharged after 7 days without complications. At 2 years' follow-up, the patient was hemodynamically stable and had a normal PAP (PAP = about 16 mmHg) by transthoracic echocardiographic assessment.


Echocardiography; Heart defects, congenital; Heart septal defects, ventricular


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center