Send to

Choose Destination
J Urol. 2018 Mar;199(3):623-632. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.09.143. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Personalized Intervention in Monogenic Stone Formers.

Author information

Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York. Electronic address:
Department of Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
Nephrology Section, NY Harbor VA Medical Center, New York, New York; Nephrology Division, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York; Urology Service, NY Harbor VA Medical Center, New York, New York.



Treatment of a first-time renal stone consists of acute management followed by medical efforts to prevent stone recurrence. Although nephrolithiasis is roughly 50% heritable, the presence of a family history usually does not affect treatment since most stone disease is regarded as polygenic, ie not attributable to a single gene. Recent evidence has suggested that single mutations could be responsible for a larger proportion of renal stones than previously thought. This intriguing possibility holds the potential to change the management paradigm in stone prevention from metabolically directed therapy to more specific approaches informed by genetic screening and testing. This review synthesizes new findings concerning monogenic kidney stone disease, and provides a concise and clinically useful reference for monogenic causes. It is expected that increased awareness of these etiologies will lead to increased use of genetic testing in recurrent stone formers and further research into the prevalence of monogenic stone disease.


We assembled a complete list of genes known to cause or influence nephrolithiasis based on recent reviews and commentaries. We then comprehensively searched PubMed® and Google Scholar™ for all research on each gene having a pertinent role in nephrolithiasis. We determined which genes could be considered monogenic causes of nephrolithiasis. One gene, ALPL, was excluded since nephrolithiasis is a relatively minor aspect of the disorder associated with the gene (hypophosphatasia). We summarized selected studies and assembled clinically relevant details.


A total of 27 genes were reviewed in terms of recent findings, mode of inheritance of stone disease, known or supposed prevalence of mutations in the general population of stone patients and specific therapies or considerations.


There is a distinct opportunity for increased use of genetic testing to improve the lives of pediatric and adult stone patients. Several genes first reported in association with rare disease may be loci for novel mutations, heterozygous disease and forme frustes as causes of stones in the broader population. Cases of idiopathic nephrolithiasis should be considered as potentially having a monogenic basis.


genetics; hypercalciuria; kidney calculi; nephrolithiasis; precision medicine

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center