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Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017 Oct;13(10):1664-1673. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2017.07.019. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Long-term nutritional impact of sleeve gastrectomy.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
Department of Surgery, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
Department of Biostatistics, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada.
Department of Internal Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:



Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a predominant bariatric procedure throughout the world. However, the long-term nutritional impact of this procedure is unknown.


To describe the nutritional deficiencies before and after SG and to analyze the influence of baseline weight on nutritional status.


University-affiliated tertiary care center.


All patients who underwent SG as a standalone procedure between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. Patients were given multivitamin supplementation. Data were obtained from our prospectively maintained electronic database and are reported as mean ± standard deviation and percentage. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of selected variables on outcomes.


The mean age of the 537 patients was 48.0 ± 11.3 years, with an initial body mass index of 48.1 ± 8.7 kg/m2. Excess weight loss and total weight loss were 56.2% and 28.0% at 1 year and 43.0% and 21.1% at 5 years, respectively (P<.0001). Percentage of follow-up was 74% at 5 years (n = 79). The mean follow-up time was 34.3 ± 17.2 months. Hypoalbuminemia was present in 1.1% preoperatively and 4.2% at 5 years (P = .0043), low ferritin levels in 8.6% and 37.8% (P<.0001), low vitamin B12 in 30.3% and 16.4% (P<.0001), low vitamin D 63.2% and 24.3% (P<.0001), and hyperparathyroidism in 23.4% and 20.8% (P<.0001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of anemia over time (P = 0.4301). The prevalence of vitamin A insufficiency peaked from 7.9% preoperatively to 28.7% at 3 months (P<.0001) and returned to baseline thereafter. Baseline weight was negatively correlated with vitamin B12 and vitamin D.


Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with morbid obesity before and after surgery. Preoperative supplementation and long-term nutritional follow-up are required to prevent nutritional deficiencies.


Bariatric surgery; Nutrition; Sleeve Gastrectomy

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