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Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(2):206-214. doi: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1359617. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Substance use among bi/multiracial youth in the United States: Profiles of psychosocial risk and protection.

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a School of Social Work , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.
b School of Social Work , Boston University , Boston , MA , USA.
c School of Social Work , College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University , St. Louis , MO , USA.



Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth.


This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk.


Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States. Analyses use multinomial regression and latent class analysis.


With few exceptions, bi/multiracial youth in general report higher levels of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use compared to other youth of color. Bi/multiracial youth also report higher levels of marijuana use compared to non-Hispanic white adolescents. However, latent class modeling also revealed that a majority (54%) of bi/multiracial youth experience high levels of psychosocial protection (i.e., strong antidrug views and elevated parental engagement) and low levels of psychosocial risk (i.e., low peer substance use, school-related problems, and social-environmental risk), and report very low levels of substance use. Substance use was found to be particularly elevated among a minority of bi/multiracial youth (28%) reporting elevated psychosocial risk and low levels of protection. Bi/multiracial youth characterized by both elevated psychosocial risk and elevated psychosocial protection (22%) reported significantly elevated substance use as well.


While bi/multiracial youth in general exhibit elevated levels of substance use, substantial heterogeneity exists among this rapidly-growing demographic.


Adolescents; alcohol and drug abuse; bi/multiracial youth; risk and protective factors; substance use

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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