Send to

Choose Destination
Neural Comput Appl. 2017;28(11):3259-3272. doi: 10.1007/s00521-016-2234-7. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Facilitating motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke patients using passive movement.

Author information

Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, Singapore.
Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland.
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.


Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) has been proposed as a rehabilitation tool to facilitate motor recovery in stroke. However, the calibration of a BCI system is a time-consuming and fatiguing process for stroke patients, which leaves reduced time for actual therapeutic interaction. Studies have shown that passive movement (PM) (i.e., the execution of a movement by an external agency without any voluntary motions) and motor imagery (MI) (i.e., the mental rehearsal of a movement without any activation of the muscles) induce similar EEG patterns over the motor cortex. Since performing PM is less fatiguing for the patients, this paper investigates the effectiveness of calibrating MI-BCIs from PM for stroke subjects in terms of classification accuracy. For this purpose, a new adaptive algorithm called filter bank data space adaptation (FB-DSA) is proposed. The FB-DSA algorithm linearly transforms the band-pass-filtered MI data such that the distribution difference between the MI and PM data is minimized. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by an offline study on data collected from 16 healthy subjects and 6 stroke patients. The results show that the proposed FB-DSA algorithm significantly improved the classification accuracies of the PM and MI calibrated models (p < 0.05). According to the obtained classification accuracies, the PM calibrated models that were adapted using the proposed FB-DSA algorithm outperformed the MI calibrated models by an average of 2.3 and 4.5 % for the healthy and stroke subjects respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the disparity between MI and PM could be stronger in the stroke patients compared to the healthy subjects, and there would be thus an increased need to use the proposed FB-DSA algorithm in BCI-based stroke rehabilitation calibrated from PM.


Adaptation; Brain–computer interface; Motor imagery; Passive movement; Stroke rehabilitation

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center