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J Clin Virol. 2017 Nov;96:105-109. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2017.10.007. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Rhinovirus viremia in adult patients with high viral load in bronchoalveolar lavages.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.l.van_rijn-klink@lumc.nl.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: e.c.j.claas@lumc.nl.
3
Department of Medical Haematology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: p.a.von_dem_Borne@lumc.nl.
4
Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.c.m.kroes@lumc.nl.
5
Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: j.j.c.de_vries@lumc.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In children, rhinovirus viremia has been associated with higher nasopharyngeal loads and increase in severity of clinical signs and symptoms.

OBJECTIVES:

This study aims to detect rhinovirus viremia in adult patients and to establish potential correlations with the clinical course.

STUDY DESIGN:

Adult patients with rhinovirus strongly positive bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, quantitation cycle, Cq values <25) detected between 2008 and 2014 were studied retrospectively. Blood sampled between two weeks before and two weeks after BAL sampling was tested for rhinovirus RNA. Underlying conditions, symptoms, radiography, microbiological data, and disease outcome were analysed.

RESULTS:

Twenty-seven of 43 patients with rhinovirus positive BAL at Cq values <25 had blood samples available within the prespecified time-frame (mean blood 3-4 samples per patient). Four of these 27 patients (15%) tested rhinovirus RNA positive in their blood (of whom one patient twice). Genotyping demonstrated rhinovirus A01, A24, B52 and B92 in these four immunocompromised patients. Viremic patients were not significantly different with regard to underlying conditions, respiratory symptoms, radiological findings, co-pathogens nor the number of blood samples tested for RV. However, patients with rhinovirus viremia had significant higher mortality rates compared to patients without viremia, as all four died as a consequence of respiratory problems (100%) versus 22% (5/23), p=0.007 (Fisher's exact).

CONCLUSIONS:

Rhinovirus viremia can occur in adult patients with a high viral load in BAL fluid. Rhinovirus viremia may be considered a negative prognostic factor, although a causative role with regard to the adverse outcome has yet to be demonstrated.

KEYWORDS:

BAL; Lower respiratory tract infection; RV; Rhinovirus; Viremia

PMID:
29049949
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcv.2017.10.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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