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Gigascience. 2017 Nov 1;6(11):1-7. doi: 10.1093/gigascience/gix094.

Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis.

Wang MS1,2, Zeng Y1,2, Wang X1,2, Nie WH1, Wang JH1, Su WT1, Otecko NO1,2, Xiong ZJ1,3, Wang S4, Qu KX5, Yan SQ6, Yang MM1,2, Wang W1,2, Dong Y7,8, Wu DD1,2, Zhang YP1,2,9.

Author information

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.
Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China.
China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture of China, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science, Kunming 650212, China.
College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.
Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650100, China.
Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.
Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.


Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal.


Bos frontalis; annotation; genome assembly; phylogeny

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