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Mol Cells. 2017 Oct;40(10):737-751. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2017.0069. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

GSK-J4-Mediated Transcriptomic Alterations in Differentiating Embryoid Bodies.

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Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea.
Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea.
Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.


Histone-modifying enzymes are key players in the field of cellular differentiation. Here, we used GSK-J4 to profile important target genes that are responsible for neural differentiation. Embryoid bodies were treated with retinoic acid (10 μM) to induce neural differentiation in the presence or absence of GSK-J4. To profile GSKJ4-target genes, we performed RNA sequencing for both normal and demethylase-inhibited cells. A total of 47 and 58 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, after GSK-J4 exposure at a log2-fold-change cut-off value of 1.2 (p-value < 0.05). Functional annotations of all of the differentially expressed genes revealed that a significant number of genes were associated with the suppression of cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death. We also identified an enrichment of potent motifs in selected genes that were differentially expressed. Additionally, we listed upstream transcriptional regulators of all of the differentially expressed genes. Our data indicate that GSK-J4 affects cellular biology by inhibiting cellular proliferation through cell cycle suppression and induction of cell death. These findings will expand the current understanding of the biology of histone-modifying enzymes, thereby promoting further investigations to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


RNA sequencing; cell cycle progression; gene expression; histone demethylase enzyme

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