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NPJ Schizophr. 2017 Oct 16;3:37. doi: 10.1038/s41537-017-0038-0. eCollection 2017.

A comparison of passive and active estimates of sleep in a cohort with schizophrenia.

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Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.
Division of Clinical Informatics, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.


Sleep abnormalities are considered an important feature of schizophrenia, yet convenient and reliable sleep monitoring remains a challenge. Smartphones offer a novel solution to capture both self-reported and objective measures of sleep in schizophrenia. In this three-month observational study, 17 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia currently in treatment downloaded Beiwe, a platform for digital phenotyping, on their personal Apple or Android smartphones. Subjects were given tri-weekly ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) on their own smartphones, and passive data including accelerometer, GPS, screen use, and anonymized call and text message logs was continuously collected. We compare the in-clinic assessment of sleep quality, assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Inventory (PSQI), to EMAs, as well as sleep estimates based on passively collected accelerometer data. EMAs and passive data classified 85% (11/13) of subjects as exhibiting high or low sleep quality compared to the in-clinic assessments among subjects who completed at least one in-person PSQI. Phone-based accelerometer data used to infer sleep duration was moderately correlated with subject self-assessment of sleep duration (r = 0.69, 95% CI 0.23-0.90). Active and passive phone data predicts concurrent PSQI scores for all subjects with mean average error of 0.75 and future PSQI scores with a mean average error of 1.9, with scores ranging from 0-14. These results suggest sleep monitoring via personal smartphones is feasible for subjects with schizophrenia in a scalable and affordable manner.


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