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Front Microbiol. 2017 Oct 4;8:1940. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01940. eCollection 2017.

Genome of Ca. Pandoraea novymonadis, an Endosymbiotic Bacterium of the Trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas.

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Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czechia.
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czechia.
Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czechia.
Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
Institute of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czechia.


We have sequenced, annotated, and analyzed the genome of Ca. Pandoraea novymonadis, a recently described bacterial endosymbiont of the trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas. When compared with genomes of its free-living relatives, it has all the hallmarks of the endosymbionts' genomes, such as significantly reduced size, extensive gene loss, low GC content, numerous gene rearrangements, and low codon usage bias. In addition, Ca. P. novymonadis lacks mobile elements, has a strikingly low number of pseudogenes, and almost all genes are single copied. This suggests that it already passed the intensive period of host adaptation, which still can be observed in the genome of Polynucleobacter necessarius, a certainly recent endosymbiont. Phylogenetically, Ca. P. novymonadis is more related to P. necessarius, an intracytoplasmic bacterium of free-living ciliates, than to Ca. Kinetoplastibacterium spp., the only other known endosymbionts of trypanosomatid flagellates. As judged by the extent of the overall genome reduction and the loss of particular metabolic abilities correlating with the increasing dependence of the symbiont on its host, Ca. P. novymonadis occupies an intermediate position P. necessarius and Ca. Kinetoplastibacterium spp. We conclude that the relationships between Ca. P. novymonadis and N. esmeraldas are well-established, although not as fine-tuned as in the case of Strigomonadinae and their endosymbionts.


Pandoraea; Trypanosomatidae; bacterial endosymbiont; metabolism; phylogenomics

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