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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Jun;69(4):451-457. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1386627. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Enhanced vitamin B12 production in an innovative lupin tempeh is due to synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in cofermentation.

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a Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS) , Università degli Studi di Milano , Milano , Italy.
b School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University , Perth , WA , Australia.


Fermentation represents a valuable and cost-effective approach for food stabilisation and nutritional improvement. Tempeh is an example of soybean solid-state fermentation. In this work, we investigated the possibility of producing a tempeh analogue containing high amounts of vitamin B12 using seeds of three different species of the legume lupin, namely Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii cofermentation. Synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in increasing vitamin B12 up to 1230‚ÄČng/g dw was observed. These findings indicate that this cofermentation can improve lupin nutritional quality and safety to provide a tempeh analogue with added value for vegan and vegetarian communities and low-income populations. The level of potentially toxic lupin alkaloids was also monitored during the tempeh preparation.


Fermented food; alkaloids; lupin tempeh; vitamin B12

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