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Oncol Rep. 2017 Dec;38(6):3592-3598. doi: 10.3892/or.2017.6012. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Thymoquinone inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells by negatively regulating the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

Author information

1
Department of Cadiovascular Surgery, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.
2
Department of Urology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.
3
Department of General Surgery, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.
4
The First Affiliated Hospital of the Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.
5
Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.
6
Medical Center, First People's Hospital of Xianyang, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712000, P.R. China.

Abstract

Thymoquinone, a major ingredient of black seed oil (Nigella sativa), has been shown to exhibit anticancer capacity in various types of cancers. However, there are few studies concerning the correlation between thymoquinone and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer. In the present study, we firstly found that thymoquinone showed antimetastatic capacity in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. Additionally, thymoquinone reversed EMT by increasing E-cadherin expression and decreasing vimentin and Slug expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway may be associated with EMT. Intriguingly, the expression of TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 at the mRNA and protein levels was notably reduced upon thymoquinone treatment in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. Subsequently, we confirmed that thymoquinone repressed metastasis and EMT of prostate cancer through downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway, which may be partially reversed by TGF-β overexpression. In summary, our findings demonstrated that thymoquinone suppressed the metastatic phenotype and reversed EMT of prostate cancer cells by negatively regulating the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that thymoquinone is a potential therapeutic agent against prostate cancer which functions by targeting TGF-β.

PMID:
29039572
DOI:
10.3892/or.2017.6012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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