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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Nov 8;9(44):38428-38435. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b10056. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Influence of the Grain Size on the Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 Thin Films.

Author information

1
Institute Silicon Photovoltaics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH , Kekuléstr. 5, 12489 Berlin, Germany.
2
Department of Microstructure and Residual Stress Analysis, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH , Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Hybrid perovskites have already shown a huge success as an absorber in solar cells, resulting in the skyrocketing rise in the power conversion efficiency to more than η = 22%. Recently, it has been established that the crystal quality is one of the most important parameters to obtain devices with high efficiencies. However, the influence of the crystal quality on the material properties is not fully understood. Here, the influence of the morphology on electronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films is investigated. Postannealing was used to vary the average grain size continuously from ≈150 to ≈1000 nm. Secondary grain growth is thermally activated with an activation energy of Ea = 0.16 eV. The increase in the grain size leads to an enhancement of the photoluminescence, indicating an improvement in the material quality. According to surface photovoltage measurements, the charge-carrier transport length exhibits a linear increase with increasing grain size. The charge-carrier diffusion length is limited by grain boundaries. Moreover, an improved morphology leads to a drastic increase in power conversion efficiency of the devices.

KEYWORDS:

diffusion length; hybrid perovskite; large grains; morphology; postannealing; secondary grain growth

PMID:
29039197
DOI:
10.1021/acsami.7b10056

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