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Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017 Nov - Dec;20:15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.10.009. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Toxocariasis in humans in Africa - A systematic review.

Author information

1
Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné (CERMEL), Gabon; Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
2
Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné (CERMEL), Gabon.
3
Medical Library, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Cochrane Netherlands, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
4
Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné (CERMEL), Gabon; Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: m.p.grobusch@amc.uva.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Toxocariasis is a globally distributed zoonosis. The most important definitive hosts are dogs, whereas humans serve as paratenic hosts. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental ingestion of eggs, e.g. by consumption of contaminated fruits or vegetables. Although exposure to Toxocara is usually considered as relatively benign, it is implicated in a range of neurological, ophthalmologic and other organ-specific conditions, some of them with grave consequences. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, presentation and risk factors of exposure to Toxocara in Africa.

METHODS:

A systematic search was performed for studies published after January 1st, 1990, in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch or German. The review was prepared according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies on toxocariasis in human populations and contamination in human environments were included.

RESULTS:

Sixty-five papers were included. Antibodies against Toxocara spp. in humans were found to be very common across Africa. Severe manifestations have been reported mainly from North Africa. Environmental contamination including soil, vegetables and fruits sold on markets was demonstrated in various locations in Africa.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure to Toxocara is prevalent across the African continent. However, the complication frequency, the impact of the condition on the individual and the public health relevance of this zoonosis, and the economic impact have never been systematically evaluated.

KEYWORDS:

Africa; Ocular larva migrans; Toxocara canis; Toxocara cati; Toxocariasis; Visceral larva migrans

Comment in

PMID:
29037977
DOI:
10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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