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Nutr Res. 2017 Sep;45:10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.07.001. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

Author information

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 01797, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea; Gwangju Bukgu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju 61261, Republic of Korea; Gwangju Mental Health Commission, Gwangju 61489, Republic of Korea.
4
Gwangju Bukgu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju 61261, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 01797, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: sjyang89@swu.ac.kr.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea; Gwangju Bukgu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju 61261, Republic of Korea; Gwangju Mental Health Commission, Gwangju 61489, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: swkim@chonnam.ac.kr.

Abstract

Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary guidelines; Folate; N-3 PUFAs; Niacin; Schizophrenia

PMID:
29037327
DOI:
10.1016/j.nutres.2017.07.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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