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PLoS One. 2017 Oct 16;12(10):e0186485. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186485. eCollection 2017.

Mutational and large deletion study of genes implicated in hereditary forms of primary hyperparathyroidism and correlation with clinical features.

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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
Department of Medical Sciences, Hospital Villa Albani, Anzio (RM), Italy.
University Hospital of Pisa, Endocrine Unit 2, Pisa, Italy.


The aim of this study was to carry out genetic screening of the MEN1, CDKN1B and AIP genes, both by direct sequencing of the coding region and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay in the largest monocentric series of Italian patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) and Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). The study also aimed to describe and compare the clinical features of MEN1 mutation-negative and mutation-positive patients during long-term follow-up and to correlate the specific types and locations of MEN1 gene mutations with onset and aggressiveness of the main MEN1 manifestations. A total of 69 index cases followed at the Endocrinology Unit in Pisa over a period of 19 years, including 54 MEN1 and 15 FIHP kindreds were enrolled. Seven index cases with MEN1 but MEN1 mutation-negative, followed at the University Hospital of Cagliari, were also investigated. FIHP were also tested for CDC73 and CaSR gene alterations. MEN1 germline mutations were identified in 90% of the index cases of familial MEN1 (F-MEN1) and in 23% of sporadic cases (S-MEN1). MEN1 and CDC73 mutations accounted for 13% and 7% of the FIHP cohort, respectively. A CDKN1B mutation was identified in one F-MEN1. Two AIP variants of unknown significance were detected in two MEN1-negative S-MEN1. A MEN1 positive test best predicted the onset of all three major MEN1-related manifestations or parathyroid and gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors during follow-up. A comparison between the clinical characteristics of F and S-MEN1 showed a higher prevalence of a single parathyroid disease and pituitary tumors in sporadic compared to familial MEN1 patients. No significant correlation was found between the type and location of MEN1 mutations and the clinical phenotype. Since all MEN1 mutation-positive sporadic patients had a phenotype resembling that of familial MEN1 (multiglandular parathyroid hyperplasia, a prevalence of gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors and/or the classic triad) we might hypothesize that a subset of the sporadic MEN1 mutation-negative patients could represent an incidental coexistence of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism and pituitary tumors or a MEN1 phenocopy, in our cohort, as in most cases described in the literature.

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