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J Pers Med. 2017 Oct 16;7(4). pii: E11. doi: 10.3390/jpm7040011.

Personomics: The Missing Link in the Evolution from Precision Medicine to Personalized Medicine.

Author information

1
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. rziegel2@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other "-omics." Personalized medicine, as defined herein, uses additional information about the individual derived from knowing the patient as a person. These unique personal characteristics are defined by tools known as personomics which takes into account an individual's personality, preferences, values, goals, health beliefs, social support network, financial resources, and unique life circumstances that affect how and when a given health condition will manifest in that person and how that condition will respond to treatment. In this paradigm, precision medicine may be considered a necessary step in the evolution of medical care to personalized medicine, with personomics as the missing link.

KEYWORDS:

health care; personalized medicine; personomics; precision medicine

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