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Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Oct 13;125(10):107005. doi: 10.1289/EHP1742.

Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project.

Author information

1
Centre for Epidemiology and Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Local Health Unit Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma 1 (ASL RM1), Rome, Italy.
3
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
5
The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.
7
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
8
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
9
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
10
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
11
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
12
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
13
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.
14
Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands.
15
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
16
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
17
Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria.
18
Vorarlberg Cancer Registry, Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine (aks, Bregenz, Austria.
19
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
20
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
21
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
22
Centre de recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP) "Health across Generations", Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm), Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.
23
Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
24
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione Istituto di ricovero e cura a carattere scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
25
Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
26
Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service Azienda Sanitaria Locale Torino 3 (ASL TO3), Grugliasco, Italy.
27
ISGlobal Institute de Salut Global Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
28
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública-CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
29
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
30
Public Health Department of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain.
31
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
32
Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
33
Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
34
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands.
35
Molecular and Epidemiology Unit, Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Torino, Italy.
36
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

METHODS:

In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

RESULTS:

Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m3], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m3, p=0.04].

CONCLUSIONS:

We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.

PMID:
29033383
PMCID:
PMC5933325
DOI:
10.1289/EHP1742
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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