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Lancet. 2017 Dec 16;390(10113):2627-2642. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.

Collaborators (1040)

Abarca-Gómez L, Abdeen ZA, Hamid ZA, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Acosta-Cazares B, Acuin C, Adams RJ, Aekplakorn W, Afsana K, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Agyemang C, Ahmadvand A, Ahrens W, Ajlouni K, Akhtaeva N, Al-Hazzaa HM, Al-Othman AR, Al-Raddadi R, Al Buhairan F, Al Dhukair S, Ali MM, Ali O, Alkerwi A, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Aly E, Amarapurkar DN, Amouyel P, Amuzu A, Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Andrade DS, Ängquist LH, Anjana RM, Aounallah-Skhiri H, Araújo J, Ariansen I, Aris T, Arlappa N, Arveiler D, Aryal KK, Aspelund T, Assah FK, Assunção MCF, Aung MS, Avdicová M, Azevedo A, Azizi F, Babu BV, Bahijri S, Baker JL, Balakrishna N, Bamoshmoosh M, Banach M, Bandosz P, Banegas JR, Barbagallo CM, Barceló A, Barkat A, Barros AJ, Barros MV, Bata I, Batieha AM, Batista RL, Batyrbek A, Baur LA, Beaglehole R, Romdhane HB, Benedics J, Benet M, Bennett JE, Bernabe-Ortiz A, Bernotiene G, Bettiol H, Bhagyalaxmi A, Bharadwaj S, Bhargava SK, Bhatti Z, Bhutta ZA, Bi H, Bi Y, Biehl A, Bikbov M, Bista B, Bjelica DJ, Bjerregaard P, Bjertness E, Bjertness MB, Björkelund C, Blokstra A, Bo S, Bobak M, Boddy LM, Boehm BO, Boeing H, Boggia JG, Boissonnet CP, Bonaccio M, Bongard V, Bovet P, Braeckevelt L, Braeckman L, Bragt MC, Brajkovich I, Branca F, Breckenkamp J, Breda J, Brenner H, Brewster LM, Brian GR, Brinduse L, Bruno G, Bueno-de-Mesquita HBA, Bugge A, Buoncristiano M, Burazeri G, Burns C, de León AC, Cacciottolo J, Cai H, Cama T, Cameron C, Camolas J, Can G, Cândido APC, Capanzana M, Capuano V, Cardoso VC, Carlsson AC, Carvalho MJ, Casanueva FF, Casas JP, Caserta CA, Chamukuttan S, Chan AW, Chan Q, Chaturvedi HK, Chaturvedi N, Chen CJ, Chen F, Chen H, Chen S, Chen Z, Cheng CY, Chetrit A, Chikova-Iscener E, Chiolero A, Chiou ST, Chirita-Emandi A, Chirlaque MD, Cho B, Cho Y, Christensen K, Christofaro DG, Chudek J, Cifkova R, Cinteza E, Claessens F, Clays E, Concin H, Confortin SC, Cooper C, Cooper R, Coppinger TC, Costanzo S, Cottel D, Cowell C, Craig CL, Crujeiras AB, Cucu A, D'Arrigo G, d'Orsi E, Dallongeville J, Damasceno A, Damsgaard CT, Danaei G, Dankner R, Dantoft TM, Dastgiri S, Dauchet L, Davletov K, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, De Curtis A, de Gaetano G, De Henauw S, de Oliveira PD, De Ridder K, De Smedt D, Deepa M, Deev AD, Dehghan A, Delisle H, Delpeuch F, Deschamps V, Dhana K, Di Castelnuovo AF, Dias-da-Costa JS, Diaz A, Dika Z, Djalalinia S, Do HT, Dobson AJ, Donati MB, Donfrancesco C, Donoso SP, Döring A, Dorobantu M, Dorosty AR, Doua K, Drygas W, Duan JL, Duante C, Duleva V, Dulskiene V, Dzerve V, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Egbagbe EE, Eggertsen R, Eiben G, Ekelund U, El Ati J, Elliott P, Engle-Stone R, Erasmus RT, Erem C, Eriksen L, Eriksson JG, la Peña JE, Evans A, Faeh D, Fall CH, Sant'Angelo VF, Farzadfar F, Felix-Redondo FJ, Ferguson TS, Fernandes RA, Fernández-Bergés D, Ferrante D, Ferrari M, Ferreccio C, Ferrieres J, Finn JD, Fischer K, Flores EM, Föger B, Foo LH, Forslund AS, Forsner M, Fouad HM, Francis DK, Franco MDC, Franco OH, Frontera G, Fuchs FD, Fuchs SC, Fujita Y, Furusawa T, Gaciong Z, Gafencu M, Galeone D, Galvano F, Garcia-de-la-Hera M, Gareta D, Garnett SP, Gaspoz JM, Gasull M, Gates L, Geiger H, Geleijnse JM, Ghasemian A, Giampaoli S, Gianfagna F, Gill TK, Giovannelli J, Giwercman A, Godos J, Gogen S, Goldsmith RA, Goltzman D, Gonçalves H, González-Leon M, González-Rivas JP, Gonzalez-Gross M, Gottrand F, Graça AP, Graff-Iversen S, Grafnetter D, Grajda A, Grammatikopoulou MG, Gregor RD, Grodzicki T, Grøntved A, Grosso G, Gruden G, Grujic V, Gu D, Gualdi-Russo E, Guallar-Castillón P, Guan OP, Gudmundsson EF, Gudnason V, Guerrero R, Guessous I, Guimaraes AL, Gulliford MC, Gunnlaugsdottir J, Gunter M, Guo X, Guo Y, Gupta PC, Gupta R, Gureje O, Gurzkowska B, Gutierrez L, Gutzwiller F, Hadaegh F, Hadjigeorgiou CA, Si-Ramlee K, Halkjær J, Hambleton IR, Hardy R, Kumar RH, Hassapidou M, Hata J, Hayes AJ, He J, Heidinger-Felso R, Heinen M, Hendriks ME, Henriques A, Cadena LH, Herrala S, Herrera VM, Herter-Aeberli I, Heshmat R, Hihtaniemi IT, Ho SY, Ho SC, Hobbs M, Hofman A, Hopman WM, Horimoto AR, Hormiga CM, Horta BL, Houti L, Howitt C, Htay TT, Htet AS, Htike MMT, Hu Y, Huerta JM, Petrescu CH, Huisman M, Husseini A, Huu CN, Huybrechts I, Hwalla N, Hyska J, Iacoviello L, Iannone AG, Ibarluzea JM, Ibrahim MM, Ikeda N, Ikram MA, Irazola VE, Islam M, Ismail AA, Ivkovic V, Iwasaki M, Jackson RT, Jacobs JM, Jaddou H, Jafar T, Jamil KM, Jamrozik K, Janszky I, Jarani J, Jasienska G, Jelakovic A, Jelakovic B, Jennings G, Jeong SL, Jiang CQ, Jiménez-Acosta SM, Joffres M, Johansson M, Jonas JB, Jørgensen T, Joshi P, Jovic DP, Józwiak J, Juolevi A, Jurak G, Jureša V, Kaaks R, Kafatos A, Kajantie EO, Kalter-Leibovici O, Kamaruddin NA, Kapantais E, Karki KB, Kasaeian A, Katz J, Kauhanen J, Kaur P, Kavousi M, Kazakbaeva G, Keil U, Boker LK, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Kelishadi R, Kelleher C, Kemper HC, Kengne AP, Kerimkulova A, Kersting M, Key T, Khader YS, Khalili D, Khang YH, Khateeb M, Khaw KT, Khouw IM, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Kiechl S, Killewo J, Kim J, Kim YY, Klimont J, Klumbiene J, Knoflach M, Koirala B, Kolle E, Kolsteren P, Korrovits P, Kos J, Koskinen S, Kouda K, Kovacs VA, Kowlessur S, Koziel S, Kratzer W, Kriemler S, Kristensen PL, Krokstad S, Kromhout D, Kruger HS, Kubinova R, Kuciene R, Kuh D, Kujala UM, Kulaga Z, Kumar RK, Kunešová M, Kurjata P, Kusuma YS, Kuulasmaa K, Kyobutungi C, La QN, Laamiri FZ, Laatikainen T, Lachat C, Laid Y, Lam TH, Landrove O, Lanska V, Lappas G, Larijani B, Laugsand LE, Lauria L, Laxmaiah A, Bao KLN, Le TD, Lebanan MAO, Leclercq C, Lee J, Lee J, Lehtimäki T, León-Muñoz LM, Levitt NS, Li Y, Lilly CL, Lim WY, Lima-Costa MF, Lin HH, Lin X, Lind L, Linneberg A, Lissner L, Litwin M, Liu J, Loit HM, Lopes L, Lorbeer R, Lotufo PA, Lozano JE, Luksiene D, Lundqvist A, Lunet N, Lytsy P, Ma G, Ma J, Machado-Coelho GL, Machado-Rodrigues AM, Machi S, Maggi S, Magliano DJ, Magriplis E, Mahaletchumy A, Maire B, Majer M, Makdisse M, Malekzadeh R, Malhotra R, Rao KM, Malyutina S, Manios Y, Mann JI, Manzato E, Margozzini P, Markaki A, Markey O, Marques LP, Marques-Vidal P, Marrugat J, Martin-Prevel Y, Martin R, Martorell R, Martos E, Marventano S, Masoodi SR, Mathiesen EB, Matijasevich A, Matsha TE, Mazur A, Mbanya JCN, McFarlane SR, McGarvey ST, McKee M, McLachlan S, McLean RM, McLean SB, McNulty BA, Yusof SM, Mediene-Benchekor S, Medzioniene J, Meirhaeghe A, Meisfjord J, Meisinger C, Menezes AMB, Menon GR, Mensink GB, Meshram II, Metspalu A, Meyer HE, Mi J, Michaelsen KF, Michels N, Mikkel K, Miller JC, Minderico CS, Miquel JF, Miranda JJ, Mirkopoulou D, Mirrakhimov E, Mišigoj-Durakovic M, Mistretta A, Mocanu V, Modesti PA, Mohamed MK, Mohammad K, Mohammadifard N, Mohan V, Mohanna S, Yusoff MFM, Molbo D, Møllehave LT, Møller NC, Molnár D, Momenan A, Mondo CK, Monterrubio EA, Monyeki KDK, Moon JS, Moreira LB, Morejon A, Moreno LA, Morgan K, Mortensen EL, Moschonis G, Mossakowska M, Mostafa A, Mota J, Mota-Pinto A, Motlagh ME, Motta J, Mu TT, Muc M, Muiesan ML, Müller-Nurasyid M, Murphy N, Mursu J, Murtagh EM, Musil V, Nabipour I, Nagel G, Naidu BM, Nakamura H, Námešná J, Nang EEK, Nangia VB, Nankap M, Narake S, Nardone P, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Neal WA, Nenko I, Neovius M, Nervi F, Nguyen CT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen QN, Nieto-Martínez RE, Ning G, Ninomiya T, Nishtar S, Noale M, Noboa OA, Norat T, Norie S, Noto D, Nsour MA, O'Reilly D, Obreja G, Oda E, Oehlers G, Oh K, Ohara K, Olafsson Ö, Olinto MTA, Oliveira IO, Oltarzewski M, Omar MA, Onat A, Ong SK, Ono LM, Ordunez P, Ornelas R, Ortiz AP, Osler M, Osmond C, Ostojic SM, Ostovar A, Otero JA, Overvad K, Owusu-Dabo E, Paccaud FM, Padez C, Pahomova E, Pajak A, Palli D, Palloni A, Palmieri L, Pan WH, Panda-Jonas S, Pandey A, Panza F, Papandreou D, Park SW, Parnell WR, Parsaeian M, Pascanu IM, Patel ND, Pecin I, Pednekar MS, Peer N, Peeters PH, Peixoto SV, Peltonen M, Pereira AC, Perez-Farinos N, Pérez CM, Peters A, Petkeviciene J, Petrauskiene A, Peykari N, Pham ST, Pierannunzio D, Pigeot I, Pikhart H, Pilav A, Pilotto L, Pistelli F, Pitakaka F, Piwonska A, Plans-Rubió P, Poh BK, Pohlabeln H, Pop RM, Popovic SR, Porta M, Portegies ML, Posch G, Poulimeneas D, Pouraram H, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Pradeepa R, Prashant M, Price JF, Puder JJ, Pudule I, Puiu M, Punab M, Qasrawi RF, Qorbani M, Bao TQ, Radic I, Radisauskas R, Rahman M, Rahman M, Raitakari O, Raj M, Rao SR, Ramachandran A, Ramke J, Ramos E, Ramos R, Rampal L, Rampal S, Rascon-Pacheco RA, Redon J, Reganit PFM, Ribas-Barba L, Ribeiro R, Riboli E, Rigo F, de Wit TFR, Rito A, Ritti-Dias RM, Rivera JA, Robinson SM, Robitaille C, Rodrigues D, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez M, Rodríguez-Villamizar LA, Rojas-Martinez R, Rojroongwasinkul N, Romaguera D, Ronkainen K, Rosengren A, Rouse I, Roy JG, Rubinstein A, Rühli FJ, Ruiz-Betancourt BS, Russo P, Rutkowski M, Sabanayagam C, Sachdev HS, Saidi O, Salanave B, Martinez ES, Salmerón D, Salomaa V, Salonen JT, Salvetti M, Sánchez-Abanto J, Sandjaja, Sans S, Marina LS, Santos DA, Santos IS, Santos O, Dos Santos RN, Santos R, Saramies JL, Sardinha LB, Sarrafzadegan N, Saum KU, Savva S, Savy M, Scazufca M, Rosario AS, Schargrodsky H, Schienkiewitz A, Schipf S, Schmidt CO, Schmidt IM, Schultsz C, Schutte AE, Sein AA, Sen A, Senbanjo IO, Sepanlou SG, Serra-Majem L, Shalnova SA, Sharma SK, Shaw JE, Shibuya K, Shin DW, Shin Y, Shiri R, Siani A, Siantar R, Sibai AM, Silva AM, Silva DAS, Simon M, Simons J, Simons LA, Sjöberg A, Sjöström M, Skovbjerg S, Slowikowska-Hilczer J, Slusarczyk P, Smeeth L, Smith MC, Snijder MB, So HK, Sobngwi E, Söderberg S, Soekatri MY, Solfrizzi V, Sonestedt E, Song Y, Sørensen TI, Soric M, Jérome CS, Soumare A, Spinelli A, Spiroski I, Staessen JA, Stamm H, Starc G, Stathopoulou MG, Staub K, Stavreski B, Steene-Johannessen J, Stehle P, Stein AD, Stergiou GS, Stessman J, Stieber J, Stöckl D, Stocks T, Stokwiszewski J, Stratton G, Stronks K, Strufaldi MW, Suárez-Medina R, Sun CA, Sundström J, Sung YT, Sunyer J, Suriyawongpaisal P, Swinburn BA, Sy RG, Szponar L, Tai ES, Tammesoo ML, Tamosiunas A, Tan EJ, Tang X, Tanser F, Tao Y, Tarawneh MR, Tarp J, Tarqui-Mamani CB, Tautu OF, Braunerová RT, Taylor A, Tchibindat F, Theobald H, Theodoridis X, Thijs L, Thuesen BH, Tjonneland A, Tolonen HK, Tolstrup JS, Topbas M, Topór-Madry R, Tormo MJ, Tornaritis MJ, Torrent M, Toselli S, Traissac P, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A, Trinh OT, Trivedi A, Tshepo L, Tsigga M, Tsugane S, Tulloch-Reid MK, Tullu F, Tuomainen TP, Tuomilehto J, Turley ML, Tynelius P, Tzotzas T, Tzourio C, Ueda P, Ugel EE, Ukoli FA, Ulmer H, Unal B, Uusitalo HM, Valdivia G, Vale S, Valvi D, van der Schouw YT, Van Herck K, Van Minh H, van Rossem L, Van Schoor NM, van Valkengoed IG, Vanderschueren D, Vanuzzo D, Vatten L, Vega T, Veidebaum T, Velasquez-Melendez G, Velika B, Veronesi G, Verschuren WM, Victora CG, Viegi G, Viet L, Viikari-Juntura E, Vineis P, Vioque J, Virtanen JK, Visvikis-Siest S, Viswanathan B, Vlasoff T, Vollenweider P, Völzke H, Voutilainen S, Vrijheid M, Wade AN, Wagner A, Waldhör T, Walton J, Bebakar WMW, Mohamud WNW, Wanderley RS Jr., Wang MD, Wang Q, Wang YX, Wang YW, Wannamethee SG, Wareham N, Weber A, Wedderkopp N, Weerasekera D, Whincup PH, Widhalm K, Widyahening IS, Wiecek A, Wijga AH, Wilks RJ, Willeit J, Willeit P, Wilsgaard T, Wojtyniak B, Wong-McClure RA, Wong JY, Wong JE, Wong TY, Woo J, Woodward M, Wu FC, Wu J, Wu S, Xu H, Xu L, Yamborisut U, Yan W, Yang X, Yardim N, Ye X, Yiallouros PK, Yngve A, Yoshihara A, You QS, Younger-Coleman NO, Yusoff F, Yusoff MFM, Zaccagni L, Zafiropulos V, Zainuddin AA, Zambon S, Zampelas A, Zamrazilová H, Zdrojewski T, Zeng Y, Zhao D, Zhao W, Zheng W, Zheng Y, Zholdin B, Zhou M, Zhu D, Zhussupov B, Zimmermann E, Cisneros JZ, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bilano V, Bixby H, Zhou B, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Taddei C, Hajifathalian K, Lu Y, Savin S, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Chirita-Emandi A, Hayes AJ, Katz J, Kelishadi R, Kengne AP, Khang YH, Laxmaiah A, Li Y, Ma J, Miranda JJ, Mostafa A, Neovius M, Padez C, Rampal L, Zhu A, Bennett JE, Danaei G, Bhutta ZA, Ezzati M.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.

METHODS:

We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).

FINDINGS:

Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.

INTERPRETATION:

The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.

FUNDING:

Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.

PMID:
29029897
PMCID:
PMC5735219
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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