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Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2017 Nov;9(3):324-348. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12094. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Health Behavior Change in Older Adults: Testing the Health Action Process Approach at the Inter- and Intraindividual Level.

Author information

1
University of Zurich, Switzerland University Research Priority Program "Dynamics of Healthy Aging", University of Zurich, Switzerland.
2
Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Technology, Switzerland Columbia University, USA.
3
Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany Saarland University, Germany.
4
Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
5
University of Zurich, Switzerland.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
7
Cantonal Hospital Olten, Switzerland University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
8
University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Center of Competence Multimorbidity, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
9
University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
10
University of Zurich, Switzerland University Research Priority Program "Dynamics of Healthy Aging", University of Zurich, Switzerland Center of Competence Multimorbidity University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Health behavior change theories usually claim to be universally and individually applicable. Most research has tested behavior change theories at the interindividual level and within young-to-middle-aged populations. However, associations at the interindividual level can differ substantially from associations at the intraindividual level. This study examines the applicability of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) at the inter- and the intraindividual level among older adults.

METHODS:

Two intensive longitudinal studies examined the HAPA model covering two different health behaviors and two different time spans: Study 1 (physical activity, N = 52 × 6 monthly observations) and Study 2 (medication adherence, N = 64 × 30 daily observations). The HAPA constructs (risk awareness, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, intention, action planning, action control), and self-reported behaviors were assessed.

RESULTS:

Overall, at the interindividual level, results of both studies largely confirmed the associations specified by the HAPA. At the intraindividual level, results were less in line with the HAPA. Only action control emerged as consistent predictor of behavior.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study emphasises the importance of examining health behavior change theories at both, the inter- and the intraindividual level.

KEYWORDS:

aging; health behavior change; intensive longitudinal methods; medication adherence; physical activity; within-person

PMID:
29024515
DOI:
10.1111/aphw.12094
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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