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Eur J Immunol. 2017 Oct;47(10):1584-1797. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646632.

Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies.

Cossarizza A1, Chang HD2, Radbruch A2, Akdis M3, Andrä I4, Annunziato F5, Bacher P6, Barnaba V7,8, Battistini L9, Bauer WM10, Baumgart S2, Becher B11, Beisker W12, Berek C2, Blanco A13, Borsellino G9, Boulais PE14,15, Brinkman RR16,17, Büscher M18, Busch DH4,19,20, Bushnell TP21, Cao X22,23,24, Cavani A25, Chattopadhyay PK26, Cheng Q27, Chow S28, Clerici M29, Cooke A30, Cosma A31, Cosmi L32, Cumano A33, Dang VD2, Davies D34, De Biasi S35, Del Zotto G36, Della Bella S37,38, Dellabona P39, Deniz G40, Dessing M41, Diefenbach A6, Di Santo J42, Dieli F43, Dolf A44, Donnenberg VS45, Dörner T46, Ehrhardt GRA47, Endl E48, Engel P49, Engelhardt B50, Esser C51, Everts B52, Dreher A3, Falk CS53,54, Fehniger TA55, Filby A56, Fillatreau S57,58,59, Follo M60, Förster I61, Foster J62, Foulds GA63, Frenette PS14,64, Galbraith D65, Garbi N44,66, García-Godoy MD67, Geginat J68, Ghoreschi K69, Gibellini L35, Goettlinger C70, Goodyear CS71, Gori A72, Grogan J73, Gross M74, Grützkau A2, Grummitt D62, Hahn J75, Hammer Q2, Hauser AE2,76, Haviland DL77, Hedley D28, Herrera G78, Herrmann M75, Hiepe F27, Holland T66, Hombrink P79, Houston JP80, Hoyer BF27, Huang B81,82,83, Hunter CA84, Iannone A85, Jäck HM86, Jávega B87, Jonjic S88,89, Juelke K2, Jung S74, Kaiser T2, Kalina T90, Keller B91, Khan S47, Kienhöfer D75, Kroneis T92, Kunkel D93, Kurts C44, Kvistborg P94, Lannigan J95, Lantz O96,97,98, Larbi A99,100,101,102, LeibundGut-Landmann S103, Leipold MD104, Levings MK105, Litwin V106, Liu Y47, Lohoff M107, Lombardi G108, Lopez L109, Lovett-Racke A110, Lubberts E111, Ludewig B112, Lugli E113,114, Maecker HT104, Martrus G115, Matarese G116, Maueröder C75, McGrath M2, McInnes I71, Mei HE2, Melchers F117, Melzer S118, Mielenz D119, Mills K120, Mirrer D3, Mjösberg J121,122, Moore J123, Moran B120, Moretta A124,125, Moretta L126, Mosmann TR127, Müller S128, Müller W129, Münz C11, Multhoff G130,131, Munoz LE75, Murphy KM132,133, Nakayama T134, Nasi M35, Neudörfl C53, Nolan J135, Nourshargh S136, O'Connor JE87, Ouyang W137, Oxenius A138, Palankar R139, Panse I140, Peterson P141, Peth C18, Petriz J67, Philips D94, Pickl W142, Piconese S7,8, Pinti M143, Pockley AG63,144, Podolska MJ75, Pucillo C145, Quataert SA127, Radstake TRDJ146, Rajwa B147, Rebhahn JA127, Recktenwald D148, Remmerswaal EBM149, Rezvani K150, Rico LG67, Robinson JP151, Romagnani C2, Rubartelli A152, Ruckert B3, Ruland J153,154,155, Sakaguchi S156,157, Sala-de-Oyanguren F87, Samstag Y158, Sanderson S159, Sawitzki B160,161, Scheffold A2,6, Schiemann M4, Schildberg F162, Schimisky E163, Schmid SA164, Schmitt S165, Schober K4, Schüler T166, Schulz AR2, Schumacher T94, Scotta C108, Shankey TV167, Shemer A74, Simon AK140, Spidlen J16, Stall AM168, Stark R79, Stehle C2, Stein M119, Steinmetz T119, Stockinger H169, Takahama Y170, Tarnok A171,172, Tian Z173,174, Toldi G175, Tornack J117, Traggiai E176, Trotter J168, Ulrich H177, van der Braber M94, van Lier RAW79, Veldhoen M178, Vento-Asturias S66, Vieira P179, Voehringer D180, Volk HD181, von Volkmann K182, Waisman A183, Walker R184, Ward MD185, Warnatz K91, Warth S93, Watson JV186, Watzl C187, Wegener L18, Wiedemann A46, Wienands J188, Willimsky G189, Wing J156,157, Wurst P44, Yu L190, Yue A191, Zhang Q192, Zhao Y193, Ziegler S115, Zimmermann J194.

Author information

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, Modena, Italy.
2
Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ), an Institute of the Leibniz Association, Berlin, Germany.
3
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.
4
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
5
University of Florence, Internal Medicine, Florence, Italy.
6
Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
7
Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specialità Mediche, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy.
8
Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Rome, Italy.
9
Neuroimmunology and Flow Cytometry Units, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.
10
Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
11
University of Zurich, Institute of Experimental Immunology, Zürich, Switzerland.
12
Flow Cytometry Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health.
13
Flow Cytometry Core Technologies, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
14
Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
15
The Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Bronx, New York, USA.
16
Terry Fox Laboratory, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
17
Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
18
Biopyhsics, R&D Engineering, Miltenyi Biotec GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.
19
DZIF - National Centre for Infection Research, Munich, Germany.
20
Focus Group ''Clinical Cell Processing and Purification", Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
21
Department of Pediatrics and Shared Resource Laboratories, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY, United States of America.
22
Institute of Immunology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.
23
National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology & Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
24
Department of Immunology & Center for Immunotherapy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China.
25
INMP/NIHMP, Rome, Italy.
26
Immunotechnology Section, Vaccine Research Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
27
Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Rheumatologie und Medizinische Immunolologie Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
28
Divsion of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
29
University of Milano and Don C Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
30
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
31
CEA - Université Paris Sud - INSERM U, Immunology of viral infections and autoimmune diseases, France.
32
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italia.
33
Lymphopoiesis Unit, Immunology Department Pasteur Institute, Paris, France.
34
Flow Cytometry Facility, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.
35
Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
36
Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.
37
University of Milan, Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine.
38
Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Lab of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
39
Experimental Immunology Unit, Head, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.
40
Istanbul University, Aziz Sancar Institute of Experimental Medicine, Department of Immunology, Istanbul, Turkey.
41
Sony Europe Ltd, Weybridge, UK.
42
Institut Pasteur, Immunology, Paris, France.
43
University of Palermo, Department of Biopathology, Palermo, Italy.
44
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
45
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA.
46
Department of Medicine/Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
47
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
48
Department of Molecular Medicine and Experimental Immunology, (Core Facility Flow Cytometry) University of Bonn, Germany.
49
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
50
Professor for Immunobiology, Director, Theodor Kocher Institute, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
51
IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany.
52
Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands.
53
Institute of Transplant Immunology, IFB-Tx, MHH Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
54
German Center for Infectious diseases (DZIF), TTU-IICH, Hannover, Germany.
55
Divisions of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.
56
The Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
57
Institut Necker-Enfants Malades (INEM), INSERM U-CNRS UMR, Paris, France.
58
Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France.
59
Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
60
Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
61
Immunology and Environment, Life & Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
62
Owl Biomedical Inc., Santa Barbara, USA.
63
John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
64
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
65
University of Arizona, Bio Institute, School of Plant Sciences and Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
66
Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, Bonn, Germany.
67
Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.
68
INGM, Istituto Nazionale Genetica Molecolare "Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi", Milan, Italy.
69
Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany.
70
Institut fuer Genetik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln, Germany.
71
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow.
72
Clinic of Infectious Diseases, "San Gerardo" Hospital - ASST Monza, University Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
73
Genentech, Department of Cancer Immunology, South San Francisco, California, USA.
74
Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
75
Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen.
76
Immundynamics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
77
Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA.
78
Cytometry Service, Incliva Foundation. Clinic Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Valencia. Av. Blasco Ibáñez, Valencia, Spain.
79
Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
80
Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003, USA.
81
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
82
Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences & State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
83
Clinical Immunology Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
84
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
85
Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Clinical and Public Health, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
86
Division of Molecular Immunology, Internal Medicine III, Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center of MolecularMedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
87
Laboratory of Cytomics, Joint Research Unit CIPF-UVEG, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Valencia. Av. Blasco Ibáñez, Valencia, Spain.
88
Faculty of Medicine, Center for Proteomics, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
89
Department for Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
90
Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
91
Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
92
Medical University of Graz, Institute of Cell Biology, Histology & Embryology, Graz, Austria.
93
BCRT Flow Cytometry Lab, Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
94
Division of immunology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.
95
University of Virginia School of Medicine, Flow Cytometry Shared Resource, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
96
INSERM U932, Institut Curie, Paris 75005, France.
97
Laboratoire d'immunologie clinique, Institut Curie, Paris 75005, France.
98
Centre d'investigation Clinique en Biothérapie Gustave-Roussy Institut Curie (CIC-BT1428), Institut Curie, Paris 75005, France.
99
Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Principal Investigator, Biology of Aging Program.
100
Director Flow Cytomerty Platform, Immunomonitoring Platform, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.
101
Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada.
102
Faculty of Sciences, ElManar University, Tunis, Tunisia.
103
Section of Immunology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
104
The Human Immune Monitoring Center (HIMC), Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA.
105
Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia & British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
106
Covance, Hematology, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
107
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, University of Marburg, Marburg 35043, Germany.
108
MRC Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, SE1 9RT London, UK.
109
Beckman Coulter, Inc, Miami, FL, USA.
110
Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
111
Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
112
Institute of Immunobiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
113
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
114
Humanitas Flow Cytometry Core, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
115
Department of Virus Immunology, Heinrich-Pette-Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany.
116
Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy and Istituto per l'Endocrinologia e l'Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli, Italy.
117
Senior Group on Lymphocyte Development, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
118
Clinical Trial Center Leipzig, University Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
119
Division of Molecular Immunology, Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center, Dept. of Internal Medicine III, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
120
Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
121
Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Sweden.
122
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
123
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
124
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
125
Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica-CEBR, Genova, Italy.
126
Department of Immunology, IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.
127
David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
128
Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department Environemntal Microbiology, Leipzig, Germany.
129
Bill Ford Chair in Cellular Immunology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
130
Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich, Germany.
131
Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Experimental Immune Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
132
Department of Pathology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
133
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
134
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
135
The Scintillon Institute, Nancy Ridge Drive, San Diego, CA, USA.
136
Centre for Microvascular Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
137
Department of Inflammation and Oncology, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.
138
Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
139
Institute for Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Straße, 17489, Greifswald, Germany.
140
Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
141
Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
142
Institute of Immunology, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
143
Department of Life Sciences, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
144
Chromocyte Limited, Electric Works, Sheffield, UK.
145
Univeristy of Udine - Department of Medicine, Lab of Immunology, Udine, Italy.
146
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
147
Bindley Biosciences Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, In, USA.
148
Desatoya LLC, Reno, NV, USA.
149
Department of Experimental Immunology and Renal Transplant Unit, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
150
Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
151
The SVM Professor of Cytomics & Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
152
Cell Biology Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genova, Italy.
153
Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
154
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
155
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Munich, Munich, Germany.
156
Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan.
157
Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.
158
Institute of Immunology, Section Molecular Immunology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, D-69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
159
Translational Immunology Laboratory, NIHR BRC, University of Oxford, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology,Oxford, United Kingdom.
160
Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universitaet Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin.
161
Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Medical Immunology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
162
Harvard Medical School, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Boston, MA, USA.
163
R&D Reagents, Miltenyi Biotec GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.
164
Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin I, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
165
Imaging and Cytometry Core Facility, Flow Cytometry Unit, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
166
Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
167
AsedaSciences, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
168
BD Life Sciences, San Diego, CA USA.
169
Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
170
Division of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Advanced Medical Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.
171
Departement for Therapy Validation, Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI, Leipzig, Germany.
172
Institute for Medical Informatics, IMISE, Leipzig, Germany.
173
School of Life Sciences and Medical Center, Institute of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease of Chinese Academy of Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
174
Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
175
University of Birmingham, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Birmingham, UK.
176
Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research (NIBR), Basel Switzerland.
177
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo.
178
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal.
179
Unité Lymphopoiese, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
180
Department of Infection Biology, University Hospital Erlangen, Wasserturmstr. 3/5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.
181
Inst. Med. Immunol. & BCRT & Labor Berlin.
182
A·P·E-Applied Physics & Electronics, Berlin, Germany.
183
Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
184
Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK.
185
Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
186
Medinfomatics Ltd., West Drayton, Middlesex, England.
187
Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at TU Dortmund, IfADo, Department of Immunology, Dortmund, Germany.
188
Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Georg-August-Universität, Abt. Zelluläre und Molekulare Immunologie, Humboldtallee 34, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.
189
Cooperation Unit for Experimental and Translational Cancer Immunology, Institute of Immunology (Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Berlin, Germany.
190
BD Biosciences, San Jose CA, USA.
191
School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
192
Emerald Biotech Co., Ltd, Hangzhou, China.
193
Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
194
Maurice Müller Laboratories (DKF), Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse, Bern.
PMID:
29023707
DOI:
10.1002/eji.201646632
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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