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Biometrics. 2018 Jun;74(2):744-752. doi: 10.1111/biom.12781. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

A two-stage model for wearable device data.

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Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, U.S.A.
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, U.S.A.


Recent advances of wearable computing technology have allowed continuous health monitoring in large observational studies and clinical trials. Examples of data collected by wearable devices include minute-by-minute physical activity proxies measured by accelerometers or heart rate. The analysis of data generated by wearable devices has so far been quite limited to crude summaries, for example, the mean activity count over the day. To better utilize the full data and account for the dynamics of activity level in the time domain, we introduce a two-stage regression model for the minute-by-minute physical activity proxy data. The model allows for both time-varying parameters and time-invariant parameters, which helps capture both the transition dynamics between active/inactive periods (Stage 1) and the activity intensity dynamics during active periods (Stage 2). The approach extends methods developed for zero-inflated Poisson data to account for the high-dimensionality and time-dependence of the high density data generated by wearable devices. Methods are motivated by and applied to the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.


Accelerometer; Actigraphy; Actiheart; Physical activity; Semi-parametric; Two-stage model

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