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Nature. 2017 Oct 11;550(7675):204-213. doi: 10.1038/nature24277.

Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues.

Collaborators (361)

Aguet F, Ardlie KG, Cummings BB, Gelfand ET, Getz G, Hadley K, Handsaker RE, Huang KH, Kashin S, Karczewski KJ, Lek M, Li X, MacArthur DG, Nedzel JL, Nguyen DT, Noble MS, Segrè AV, Trowbridge CA, Tukiainen T, Abell NS, Balliu B, Barshir R, Basha O, Battle A, Bogu GK, Brown A, Brown CD, Castel SE, Chen LS, Chiang C, Conrad DF, Cox NJ, Damani FN, Davis JR, Delaneau O, Dermitzakis ET, Engelhardt BE, Eskin E, Ferreira PG, Frésard L, Gamazon ER, Garrido-Martín D, Gewirtz ADH, Gliner G, Gloudemans MJ, Guigo R, Hall IM, Han B, He Y, Hormozdiari F, Howald C, Kyung Im H, Jo B, Yong Kang E, Kim Y, Kim-Hellmuth S, Lappalainen T, Li G, Li X, Liu B, Mangul S, McCarthy MI, McDowell IC, Mohammadi P, Monlong J, Montgomery SB, Muñoz-Aguirre M, Ndungu AW, Nicolae DL, Nobel AB, Oliva M, Ongen H, Palowitch JJ, Panousis N, Papasaikas P, Park Y, Parsana P, Payne AJ, Peterson CB, Quan J, Reverter F, Sabatti C, Saha A, Sammeth M, Scott AJ, Shabalin AA, Sodaei R, Stephens M, Stranger BE, Strober BJ, Sul JH, Tsang EK, Urbut S, van de Bunt M, Wang G, Wen X, Wright FA, Xi HS, Yeger-Lotem E, Zappala Z, Zaugg JB, Zhou YH, Akey JM, Bates D, Chan J, Chen LS, Claussnitzer M, Demanelis K, Diegel M, Doherty JA, Feinberg AP, Fernando MS, Halow J, Hansen KD, Haugen E, Hickey PF, Hou L, Jasmine F, Jian R, Jiang L, Johnson A, Kaul R, Kellis M, Kibriya MG, Lee K, Billy Li J, Li Q, Li X, Lin J, Lin S, Linder S, Linke C, Liu Y, Maurano MT, Molinie B, Montgomery SB, Nelson J, Neri FJ, Oliva M, Park Y, Pierce BL, Rinaldi NJ, Rizzardi LF, Sandstrom R, Skol A, Smith KS, Snyder MP, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Stranger BE, Tang H, Tsang EK, Wang L, Wang M, Van Wittenberghe N, Wu F, Zhang R, Nierras CR, Branton PA, Carithers LJ, Guan P, Moore HM, Rao A, Vaught JB, Gould SE, Lockart NC, Martin C, Struewing JP, Volpi S, Addington AM, Koester SE, Little AR, Brigham LE, Hasz R, Hunter M, Johns C, Johnson M, Kopen G, Leinweber WF, Lonsdale JT, McDonald A, Mestichelli B, Myer K, Roe B, Salvatore M, Shad S, Thomas JA, Walters G, Washington M, Wheeler J, Bridge J, Foster BA, Gillard BM, Karasik E, Kumar R, Miklos M, Moser MT, Jewell SD, Montroy RG, Rohrer DC, Valley DR, Davis DA, Mash DC, Undale AH, Smith AM, Tabor DE, Roche NV, McLean JA, Vatanian N, Robinson KL, Sobin L, Barcus ME, Valentino KM, Qi L, Hunter S, Hariharan P, Singh S, Um KS, Matose T, Tomaszewski MM, Barker LK, Mosavel M, Siminoff LA, Traino HM, Flicek P, Juettemann T, Ruffier M, Sheppard D, Taylor K, Trevanion SJ, Zerbino DR, Craft B, Goldman M, Haeussler M, Kent WJ, Lee CM, Paten B, Rosenbloom KR, Vivian J, Zhu J, Craft B, Goldman M, Haeussler M, Kent WJ, Lee CM, Paten B, Rosenbloom KR, Vivian J, Zhu J, Aguet F, Brown AA, Castel SE, Davis JR, He Y, Jo B, Mohammadi P, Park Y, Parsana P, Segrè AV, Strober BJ, Zappala Z, Cummings BB, Gelfand ET, Hadley K, Huang KH, Lek M, Li X, Nedzel JL, Nguyen DY, Noble MS, Sullivan TJ, Tukiainen T, MacArthur DG, Getz G, Addington A, Guan P, Koester S, Little AR, Lockhart NC, Moore HM, Rao A, Struewing JP, Volpi S, Brigham LE, Hasz R, Hunter M, Johns C, Johnson M, Kopen G, Leinweber WF, Lonsdale JT, McDonald A, Mestichelli B, Myer K, Roe B, Salvatore M, Shad S, Thomas JA, Walters G, Washington M, Wheeler J, Bridge J, Foster BA, Gillard BM, Karasik E, Kumar R, Miklos M, Moser MT, Jewell SD, Montroy RG, Rohrer DC, Valley D, Mash DC, Davis DA, Sobin L, Barcus ME, Branton PA, Abell NS, Balliu B, Delaneau O, Frésard L, Gamazon ER, Garrido-Martín D, Gewirtz ADH, Gliner G, Gloudemans MJ, Han B, He AZ, Hormozdiari F, Li X, Liu B, Kang EY, McDowell IC, Ongen H, Palowitch JJ, Peterson CB, Quon G, Ripke S, Saha A, Shabalin AA, Shimko TC, Sul JH, Teran NA, Tsang EK, Zhang H, Zhou YH, Bustamante CD, Cox NJ, Guigó R, Kellis M, McCarthy MI, Conrad DF, Eskin E, Li G, Nobel AB, Sabatti C, Stranger BE, Wen X, Wright FA, Ardlie KG, Dermitzakis ET, Lappalainen T.

Author information

1
Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.
2
Department of Genetics and Institute for Biomedical Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
3
Department of Computer Science and Center for Statistics and Machine Learning, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA.
4
Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Abstract

Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression levels across individuals and diverse tissues of the human body, many of which are not easily accessible. Here we describe genetic effects on gene expression levels across 44 human tissues. We find that local genetic variation affects gene expression levels for the majority of genes, and we further identify inter-chromosomal genetic effects for 93 genes and 112 loci. On the basis of the identified genetic effects, we characterize patterns of tissue specificity, compare local and distal effects, and evaluate the functional properties of the genetic effects. We also demonstrate that multi-tissue, multi-individual data can be used to identify genes and pathways affected by human disease-associated variation, enabling a mechanistic interpretation of gene regulation and the genetic basis of disease.

PMID:
29022597
PMCID:
PMC5776756
DOI:
10.1038/nature24277
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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