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Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018 Feb;44(1):245-256. doi: 10.1007/s10695-017-0430-8. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Clove oil induces anaesthesia and blunts muscle contraction power in three Amazon fish species.

Author information

1
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.
2
Faculdade de Engenharia de Pesca, Instituto de Estudos Costeiros, Bragança, PA, Brazil.
3
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, MS, Brazil.
4
Laboratório de Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Produtos Naturais, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil.
5
Laboratório de Aquacultura de Espécies Tropicais, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará, IFPA Campus Castanhal, Castanhal, Pará, 68740-970, Brazil.
6
Laboratório de Aquacultura de Espécies Tropicais, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará, IFPA Campus Castanhal, Castanhal, Pará, 68740-970, Brazil. professorbarbas@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effectiveness on Amazon fish species and no compelling evidence has ever been reported on the relaxant properties of this oil for skeletal muscle of fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the latencies to deep anaesthesia and recovery, along with the myorelaxant effect of clove oil on three Amazon fish species: cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, banded cichlid, Heros severus and angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, submitted to short-term anaesthetic baths. Fish were assayed in three groups of 60 fish each and individually anaesthetized in a completely randomized design with six clove oil concentrations using 10 fish/species/concentration. Electromyographic recordings from dorsal muscle were performed during stages of induction and recovery in which nine fish/species/stage were used. Deep anaesthesia was attained for all concentrations tested, and no mortalities were observed throughout the experiments and after a 48-h observation period. Concentration of 90 μL L-1 and above promoted fast deep anaesthesia (< 3 min) and calm recovery in angelfish and cardinal tetra, whereas the concentration of 60 μL L-1 sufficed to quickly anaesthetize banded cichlid. Times to full recovery were not significantly contrasting among species and occurred within appropriate time threshold (< 5 min). Clove oil exerted a conspicuous depression of muscle contraction power, and therefore can be effectively used as a muscle relaxant agent for P. scalare, P. axelrodi, H. severus and potentially, for other fish species.

KEYWORDS:

Electromyogram; Essential oil; Eugenol; Muscle relaxant; Sedation

PMID:
29022202
DOI:
10.1007/s10695-017-0430-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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