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Genome Res. 2017 Nov;27(11):1950-1960. doi: 10.1101/gr.222083.117. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

A genome-wide interactome of DNA-associated proteins in the human liver.

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HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA.
Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.


Large-scale efforts like the ENCODE Project have made tremendous progress in cataloging the genomic binding patterns of DNA-associated proteins (DAPs), such as transcription factors (TFs). However, most chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses have focused on a few immortalized cell lines whose activities and physiology differ in important ways from endogenous cells and tissues. Consequently, binding data from primary human tissue are essential to improving our understanding of in vivo gene regulation. Here, we identify and analyze more than 440,000 binding sites using ChIP-seq data for 20 DAPs in two human liver tissue samples. We integrated binding data with transcriptome and phased WGS data to investigate allelic DAP interactions and the impact of heterozygous sequence variation on the expression of neighboring genes. Our tissue-based data set exhibits binding patterns more consistent with liver biology than cell lines, and we describe uses of these data to better prioritize impactful noncoding variation. Collectively, our rich data set offers novel insights into genome function in human liver tissue and provides a valuable resource for assessing disease-related disruptions.

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