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Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 10;7(1):12924. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-13455-4.

The ultrastructure of spinal cord perivascular spaces: Implications for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia. magdalena.lam@mq.edu.au.
2
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia.
3
Macquarie University Microscopy Unit, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia.
4
Neuroscience Research Australia, Barker Street, Randwick, New South Wales, NSW 2031, Australia.

Abstract

Perivascular spaces play a pivotal role in the exchange between cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids, and in the clearance of waste in the CNS, yet their precise anatomical components are not well described. The aim of this study was to characterise the ultrastructure of perivascular spaces and their role in the transport of fluid, in the spinal cord of healthy rats, using transmission electron microscopy. The distribution of cerebrospinal fluid tracers injected into the subarachnoid space was studied using light, confocal and electron microscopy. Perivascular spaces were found around arterioles and venules, but not capillaries, throughout the spinal cord white and grey matter. They contained fibroblasts and collagen fibres, and were continuous with the extracellular spaces of the surrounding tissue. At 5 min post injection, tracers were seen in the subarachnoid space, the peripheral white matter, the perivascular spaces, basement membranes, extracellular spaces of the surrounding tissue, and surprisingly, in the lumen of blood vessels, suggesting trans-vascular clearance. These findings point out an unrecognised outflow pathway for CNS fluids, with potential implications for volume regulation in health and disease states, but also clinically for the detection of CNS-derived biomarkers in plasma, the immune response and drug pharmacokinetics.

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