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Blood. 2017 Dec 28;130(26):2819-2828. doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-04-780825. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Platelet interaction with activated endothelium: mechanistic insights from microfluidics.

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Department of Biochemistry, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Research, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.


Traditionally, in vitro flow chamber experiments and in vivo arterial thrombosis studies have been proved to be of vital importance to elucidate the mechanisms of platelet thrombus formation after vessel wall injury. In recent years, it has become clear that platelets also act as modulators of inflammatory processes, such as atherosclerosis. A key element herein is the complex cross talk between platelets, the coagulation system, leukocytes, and the activated endothelium. This review provides insight into the platelet-endothelial interface, based on in vitro flow chamber studies and cross referenced with in vivo thrombosis studies. The main mechanisms of platelet interaction with the activated endothelium encompass (1) platelet rolling via interaction of platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V with endothelial-released von Willebrand factor with a supporting role for the P-selectin/P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 axis, followed by (2) firm platelet adhesion to the endothelium via interaction of platelet αIIbβ3 with endothelial αvβ3 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and (3) a stimulatory role for thrombin, the thrombospondin-1/CD36 axis and cyclooxygenase 1 in subsequent platelet activation and stable thrombus formation. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effect of platelets on leukocyte transendothelial migration, a key mediator of atheroprogression, are discussed. Throughout the review, emphasis is placed on recommendations for setting up, reporting, interpreting, and comparing endothelial-lined flow chamber studies and suggestions for future studies.

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